1 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

2 Department of Industrial Chemistry, Federal University, Oye - Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Optimization of bitumen with Polymer modification such as a shredded tier, which serves as a waste in the environment has been used for road pavement to minimize common failure mechanisms associated with roads. The objectives aimed at using a shredded tier to modified bitumen (STMB) in ratio10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40: 60, and 50:50, from Shredded tier were added to bitumen from Agbabu and Loda to study their performances when applied in the construction industry.
METHODS: Bitumen, which was obtained from Odigbo and Irele Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria, was mixed at 3000C for two hours at different proportion with a shredded tier. Characteristics such as Penetration, Viscosity, melting point, marshal Stability, specific gravity and mechanical properties were determined.
FINDINGS: Marshall Stability (kg) at 600C increased with an increase in shredded tier modified bitumen from10% to 40% improved performance in both modifications and reduced in a 50% increase. This indicated that the increased in shredded tier reduced the measured value of penetration after the attainment values of 40:60 blends. This interaction between the bitumen-tier blends has a penetration value adequately agreed with the predicted value by the penetration index model. The rheological properties from different proportions at temperatures ranging from 450C to 650C at 40% modification were observed to have the least rutting parameter at 3.9 (G*/Sin δ (kPa) in Agbabu and 2.91(G*/Sin δ (kPa) in Loda for defects accountable to paving deformation and ageing as there was a decrease in the rutting parameter with the increase in temperature generally.
CONCLUSION: Generally, the values obtained for the physico-mechanical properties increased with an increase in modifiers from 10% to 40% modification in the two samples. Though, Agbabu is preferable and economical due to the percentage yield for road construction.

Graphical Abstract

Performance optimization in bitumen properties from different sources modified with shredded tier waste


Main Subjects


©2023 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit: 


IJHCUM Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. 


Google Scholar | DOAJ | Scopus | EBSCO | Internet Archive |Twitter |Mendeley  


Tehran Municipality: Tehran Urban Research and Planning Center

Sanya, P., (2011). Road Safety in Uganda. Ministry of Works and Transport, Kampala, Uganda.                                


International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management (IJHCUM) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in IJHCUM should be sent to the editorial office of IJHCUM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.