Department of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The water field futurology is mostly focused on the water shortage and resulting political-security crises. However, the emphasis of this study is on the water pollution crisis. This study utilizes water decolorization and microbial decontamination as novel and low-risk methods in water and water resources sanitization with the preservation of the municipal environment approach. Modern oxidation methods for pre-treatment or aid-treatment have well-attained their place in the water and wastewater treatment process to reduce microbial and chemical contamination of water. Applying light, plasma, ozone, and Ultraviolet light is one of the modern and eco-friendly methods for water treatment and disinfection with growing usage.
METHODS: In this research, various types of ozone and plasma generators, with the approach of energy consumption reduction, were manufactured for simultaneous decolorization and disinfecting of the water. All these devices consist of three main sections; frequency-increasing circuits, voltage-increasing transformers, and a reactor based on electrical discharge in gas. The simulation was performed using Orcad and PSPICE and Comsol softwares. After designing and simulation, a pilot of each of these three sections was made.
FINDINGS: Both plasma and ozone reactors, which act as light tubes with a purple color spectrum were made and optimized for water treatment in the form of tubular tubes and flat cell for volume and surface radiation. Microbial testing of 8 water samples in terms of coliform in laboratory was confirmed by the Iran Environmental Organization mpn/100ml.
RESULTS: After computer simulation, all three basic sections of an ozone generator device with a power consumption equal to a 30-watt lightbulb were made and optimized. By 5-minute injection of the ozone generated by this device into the water containing methylene blue as the color contamination index and Escherichia coli as the microbial contamination index, 99% of microbial decontamination was achieved, along with decolorization.
CONCLUSION: Various types of plasma devices for decolorization and disinfecting water were made in this research. Due to the light-like nature of the plasma treatment and since the tested water sample was volumetric, and above all, due to the turbidity of the tested water sample, 30 minute of plasma treatment had no comparable effect to the ozonation method. Therefore, generating and injecting ozone was still the most effective method for simultaneous decolorization and microbial decontamination. The discoloration of water samples by ozonation with optimized devices was noticeable in the first minute.


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