1 School of Architecture, University College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Architecture and Urbanism, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Place attachment is among the most important aspects of the interaction between people and their places, to keep residential environments safe, sustained, and resilient. This study aims to identify the factors that influence the creation and enhancement of place attachment in residential settings, with a focus on physical elements. Given the significance of these factors in architecture and facility programming, the study aims to provide architects and designers with effective strategies for designing and redesigning residential environments. The results of this study on place attachment can be utilized in the architectural facility programming process and design decision-making. 
METHODS: This study proposed a theoretical framework in which the relationship between subjective and objective physical and individual characteristics and time were the main components of making sense of place attachment. Using a survey method, the study investigated the significance of place attachment among residents of the 600-unit residential complex in Mashhad, Iran, through a questionnaire divided into three sections. The first section focused on individual characteristics and time spent in the complex, while the second and third sections measured the objective and subjective physical characteristics and the extent of people's attachment to the complex, respectively. The data from 158 participants were analyzed using SPSS and SmartPLS software.
FINDINGS: Results of SPSS analysis showed objective physical characteristics (p<.01, r=.241), as well as the subjective physical characteristics (p<.01, r=.223) and time (p<.01, r=.237), were the most important components affecting place attachment, highlighting the role of physical strategies used in the residential complex for creating and developing this feeling. Considering these physical factors affecting the establishment and enhancement of place attachment emphasizes the role of architects and planners in satisfying this crucial human need which directly affects people's personal and social health.
CONCLUSION: The results revealed time, subjective, and objective physical characteristics are three factors that have a direct impact on place attachment. Objective physical characteristics have a direct impact on place attachment and also indirectly impact it through their effect on subjective physical characteristics. On the other hand, the relationship between individual characteristics and place attachment is indirect, as individual characteristics affect the time spent in a place, and an increase in time spent leads to a stronger place attachment. The findings can be employed extensively in architectural programming in residential environments to improve the quality of life.


Main Subjects


©2023 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


Tehran Urban Research and Planning Center Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. 


Google Scholar DOAJ | Scopus | EBSCO | Internet Archive |Twitter |Mendeley  


Tehran Urban Research and Planning Center: Tehran Municipality


International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management (IJHCUM) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in IJHCUM should be sent to the editorial office of IJHCUM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.