Document Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER

Authors

1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

2 World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya

3 Department of Environmental Sciences, Machakos University, Machakos, Kenya

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urban farming makes a substantial influence on the household economy of the urban poor especially in developing countries. Urban soil the hot spot of urban farming is a natural sink for contaminants especially the trace elements derived mainly from anthropogenic activities. This study’s aim was to quantify the concentrations of selected trace elements (Cr, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (21-50 cm) and to evaluate whether their concentration vary during dry and rainy season.
METHODS: Grid soil sampling method was used to collect soil samples and their total concentration was determined using a portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer.
FINDING: The study revealed that the topsoil had higher concentration than sub soil. The topsoil concentration in mg/kg were 61.62, 4042.58, 30.82, 43.90 and 456.43 for Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn respectively.  The subsoil concentration in mg/kg were 54.67, 3791.38, 30.32, 27.83 and 370.32 for Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn respectively. It also noted that concentration of the trace elements was higher during dry season than wet season but not significantly different (P ≥ .05) for all the elements.
CONCLUSION: This study recommends that the level of trace elements studied in the soil be monitored to ensure that it does not reach the harmful levels.     

Graphical Abstract

Selected trace elements evaluation in soil from an urban farming area

Keywords

Main Subjects

Abbaslou, H.; Martin, F.; Abtahi, A.; Moore, F., (2014). Trace element concentrations and background values in the arid soils of Hormozgan Province of southern Iran. Arch.Agron. Soil Sci., 60(8): 1125–1143 (19 pages).

Abollino, O.; Aceto, M.; Malandrino, M.; Mentasti, E.; Petrella, F., (2002). Heavy metals in agricultural soils from Piedmont , Italy . Distribution, speciation and chemometric data treatment. Chemosphere, 49: 545–-557 (13 pages).

Adugna, A., (2015). Effects of soil depth on the dynamics of selected soil properties among the highlands resources of Northeast Wollega , Ethiopia: Are these sign of degradation?. Solid Earth Discuss., 7(3): 2011-2035 (25 pages).

Ajmone-Marsan, F.; Biasioli, M., (2010). Trace elements in soils of urban areas. Water Air Soil Poll., 213(1-4): 121-143 (23 pages).

Avudainayagam, S.; Megharaj, M.; Owens, G.; Kookana, R. S., (2003). Chemistry of Chromium in soils with emphasis on tannery waste sites. Rev. Environ. Contam. T., 178: 53-91 (39 pages)

Cheng, Z., Paltseva, A., Li, I., Morin, T., Huot, H., Egendorf, S., … Shaw, R. (2015). Trace metal contamination in New York City garden soils. Soil Sci., 180(4-5): 167-174 (12 pages).

Couce, M.L.A.; Vega, F.A., (2015). Cobalt , chromium and nickel contents in soils and plants from a serpentinite quarry. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 6: 323-335 (13 pages).

Ding, Z.; Li, Y.; Sun, Q.; Zhang, H., (2018). Trace elements in soils and selected agricultural plants in the tongling mining area of China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 15(2): (12 pages).

Eghbal, N.; Nasrabadi, T.; Karbassi, A.R.; Taghavi, L., (2019). Evaluating the potential of plants (leaves) in removal of toxic metals from urban soils (case study of a district in Tehran city). Pollution, 5(2): 387-394 (8 pages).

Fazeli, G.; Karbassi, A.R.; Khoramnejadian, S.; Nasrabadi, T., (2018). Anthropogenic share of metal contents in soils of urban areas. Pollution, 4(4): 697-706 (10 pages).

Gauszka, A.; Migaszewski, Z.M.; Namienik, J., (2015). Moving your laboratories to the field - Advantages and limitations of the use of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis. Environ. Res., 140: 593-603 (11 pages).

Galitskova, Y.M.; Murzayeva, A.I., (2016). Urban soil contamination. Procedia Eng. 153: 162-166 (5 pages).

Ghosh, S., (2004). Food production in cities. Acta Hortic., 643(Mollison 1988): 233-239 (7 pages).

Guo, Y.; Feng, H., Chen, C.; Jia, C;, Xiong, F.; Lu, Y., (2013). Heavy metal concentrations in soil and agricultural products near an industrial district. Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 22(5): 1357-1362 (6 pages).

Haluschak, P.; Eilers, R.G.; Mills, G.F; Grift, S., (1998). Status of selected trace elements in agricultural soils of southern Manitoba (No. A54-8, p. 3). Technical Report 1998-6E Land Resource Unit, Brandon Research Centre, Research Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.. Technical Bulletin 1998-6E Cat.

Hooda, P., (Ed.). (2010). Trace elements in soils. John Wiley & Sons.

Iwegbue, C. M.A.; Iwegbue, C.M.A., (2015). Assessment of heavy metal speciation in soils impacted with crude oil in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Chem. Spec. Bioavailab., 23(1): 7-15 (9 pages).

Ji, W.; Yang, T.; Ma, S.; Ni, W., (2012). Energy procedia heavy metal pollution of soils in the site of a retired paint and ink factory. Energy Procedia, 16: 21-26 (6 pages).

Jobbágy, E.G.; Jackson, R.B., (2014). The distribution of soil nutrients with depth: Global patterns and the imprint of plants. Biogeochemistry, 53: 51-77 (27 pages).

Kabata-Pendias, A., (2011). Trace elements in soils and plants.

Kabata-pendias, A.; Henryk, P., (2001). Trace elements in soils and plants trace elements in soils and plants. (403 pages).

Kabata-Pendias, A.; Mukherjee, A.B., (2007). Trace elements from soil to human.

Kamaludeen, S.P.B.; Megharaj, M.; Juhasz, A.L.; Sethunathan, N.; Naidu, R., (2003). Chromium – microorganism interactions in soils: Remediation implications. Rev. Environ. Contam. T., 78: 93-164 (71 pages).  

Lal, R., (2009). Soil degradation as a reason for inadequate human nutrition. J. Food Secur., 1: 45-57 (13 pages).      

Mahabadi, M. (2020). Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination and the Risk of Target Hazard Quotient in Some Vegetables in Isfahan. Pollution, 6(1): 69-78 (10 pages).

Maleki, A., Amini, H.; Nazmara, S.; Zandi, S.; Mahvi, A.H., (2014). Environmental health spatial distribution of heavy metals in soil, water, and vegetables of farms in Sanandaj, Kurdistan. J. Environ Health Sci., 2(1): 1-10 (10 pages).          

Mielke, H.W.; Laidlaw, M.A.S.; Gonzales, C.R., (2011). Estimation of leaded (Pb) gasoline’s continuing material and health impacts on 90 US urbanized areas. Environ. Int., 37(1): 248-257 (10 pages).  

Mishra, A.; Tripathi, B.D., (2008). Heavy metal contamination of soil, and bioaccumulation in vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater in the tropical city of Varanasi, India. Toxicol Environ. Chem., 90(5): 861-871 (11 pages).

Nazir, R.; Khan, M.; Masab, M.; Rehman, H.U. R.; Rauf, N.U.R., (2015). Accumulation of heavy metals ( Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn , Fe ) in the soil, water, and plants and analysis of physico-chemical parameters of soil and water collected from Tanda Dam kohat. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 7(3): 89-97 (9 pages).

Ogunkunle, C.; Aniefiok, I.; Adeniyi, S.; Akintola, E.; Okere, U., (2017). Urban vegetable farming: Anthropic level, bioavailability, and health implication associated with bioaccumulated trace metals in selected vegetables in Ilorin, Nigeria. Pollution, 3(2): 285-300 (16 pages).

Oka, G.A.; Thomas, L.; Lavkulich, L.M., (2014). Soil assessment for urban agriculture: A Vancouver case study. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nut., 14(3): 657-669 (13 pages).

Opijah, F.J.; Mukabana, J.R.; Ng ’ang ’, J.K., (2007). Rainfall Distribution Over Nairobi Area. J. Kenya Meteorol. Soc, 1(1): 3-13 (11 pages).     

Osobamiro, M.T.; Adewuyi, G.O., (2015). Levels of heavy metals in the soil: Effects of season, agronomic practice and soil geology. Res. J. Chem. Environ., 4(4): 109-117 (9 pages).

Reiss, M.; Chifflard, P., (2015). Depth function of manganese ( Mn ) concentration in soil solutions : Hydropedological translocation of trace elements in stratified soils. Eurasian J. Soil Sci., 4(3): 169-177 (9 pages).

De Kimpe, C.R.; Morel, J.L., (2000). Urban soil management: A growing concern. Soil Sci., 165(1): 31-40 (10 pages).

Simona, I.; Alexandru, U.; Cuza, I.; Sirbu-radasanu, D.S.; Alexandru, U.; Cuza, I., … Cuza, I. (2015). Levels of manganese and iron in soil around the Manaila mining area, NE of Romania, (February 2016): 215-220 (6 pages).

Smit, J.; Nasr, J.; Ratta, A., (2001). Urban Agriculture Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities 2001 Chapter 8. In Urban Agriculture Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities (p. 32). The Urban Agriculture Network, Inc.

Su, C.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, W., (2014). A review on heavy metal contamination in the soil worldwide: Situation, impact and remediation techniques. Environ. Skept. Crit., 3(2): 24-38 (15 pages).

Taghipour, H.; Mosaferi, M.; Armanfar, F.; Gaemmagami, S.J., (2013). Heavy metals pollution in the soils of suburban areas in big cities: A case study. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol, 10: 243–250 (8 pages).   

 Teutsch, N.; Erel, Y.; Halicz, L.; Chadwick, O.A., (1999). The influence of rainfall on metal concentration and behavior in the soil. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63(21): 3499-3511 (13 pages).

Towett, E.K.; Shepherd, K.D.; Tondoh, J.E.; Winowiecki, L.A.; Lulseged, T.; Nyambura, M.; Sila, A.; Vågen, T.G.; Cadisch, G., (2015). Total elemental composition of soils in Sub-Saharan Africa and relationship with soil forming factors. Geoderma Reg., 5: 157-168 (12 pages).

Wollenhaupt, N.C.; Wolkowski, R,P., (1994). Grid soil sampling. Better Crops, 78(4): 6-9 (4 pages).

Zhao, Y.F.; Shi, X.Z.; Huang, B.; YU, D.S.; Wang, H.J.; Sun, W.X.; Blombäck, K., (2007). Spatial distribution of heavy metals in agricultural soils of an industry-based Peri-Urban area in Wuxi, China. Pedosphere, 17(1): 44-51 (8 pages).


LETTERS TO EDITOR

International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management (IJHCUM) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in IJHCUM should be sent to the editorial office of IJHCUM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.


[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.

CAPTCHA Image