1 Department of Economics, BachaKhan University, Charsadda, KPK, Pakistan

2 Department of Management, University of Baltistan, Skardu, Gilget-Baltistan, Pakistan


In today’s world, green human resource management is one of the most important factors in forward-thinking your environment-friendly business. Most of the researchers are of the view that employees must be empowered and environmentally aware of greening while carrying out green human resource management practices.  The present study is examining the impact of different Green human resource practices on environmental behavior directly or indirectly via Pro-environmental behavior. The data is collected through questionnaire from the educational institutions in Baltistan region. The sample size is 300 employees of public universities. A Structure Equation Modeling is utilized to obtain the relationships between the variables. The results show that green human resource management practices have a strong direct impact on Environmental sustainability while the indirect relationship between green environmental training and sustainable environment through a mediator “pro-environmental behavior”. The results illustrate that Green Performance Management and Appraisal has a positive (β=0.27), Green Reward and Compensation and environmental sustainability which again shows a positive (β=0.14) and significant impact of Green Reward and Compensation on environmental sustainability. Green Training and Development also shows a positive (β=0.29) and Green Training and Development has a positive and significant relationship. The results suggest that the mediator does not sensitize environmental sustainability. The study suggests that Public Sector universities need to train and compensate their employee to reduce environmental degradation and make their contribution to the sustainability of the environment.

Graphical Abstract


Main Subjects

Arulrajah, A.A.; Opatha, H.H.D.N.P., (2016). Analytical and Theoretical Perspectives on Green Human Resource Management: A Simplified Underpinning. Int. Bus. Res., 9(12): 153-164 (12 pages).

Ashraf, F.; Ashraf, I.; Anam, W., (2015). Green HR for businesses. Int. J. Acad. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci., 5(8): 149- 156 (8 pages).

Boselie, P.; Paauwe, J.; Jansen, P., (2001). Human resource management and performance: lessons from the Netherlands. Hum. Resour. Manage., J., 12(7): 1107-1125 (19 pages).

Chaudhary, R., (2019). Green human resource management in Indian automobile industry. J. Global Respons., 10(2): 161–175 (15 pages).

Chin, J. L., (2010). Introduction to the special issue on diversity and leadership. Am. Psychol., 65(3), 150-156. (7 pages).

Cheema, S.; Javed, F., (2017). The effects of corporate social responsibility toward green human resource management: The mediating role of sustainable environment. Cogent Bus. Manage., 22 (10 pages).

Diamantopoulos, A.; Siguaw, J. A., (2006). Formative versus reflective indicators in organizational measure development: A comparison and empirical illustration. Br. J. Manage., 17(4): 263-282. (20 pages).

Dutta, D., (2012). Greening people: A strategic dimension. ZENITH Int. J. Bus. Econ. Manage. Res., 2(2): 143- 148 (6 pages).

Gudergan, S. P.; Ringle, C. M.; Wende, S.; Will, A., (2008). Confirmatory tetrad analysis in PLS path modeling. J. Bus Res, 61(12): 1238-1249 (12 pages).

González‐Benito, J.; González‐Benito, Ó. (2006). A review of determinant factors of environmental proactivity. Bus Strategy Environ., 15(2): 87-102 (16 pages).

Hair Jr, J.F.; Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L.; Kuppelwieser, V.G., (2014). (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research", Eur. Bus. Rev., 26(2): 106-121 (16 pages).

Hair Jr, J.F.; Lukas, B., (2014). Australia: McGraw-Hill Education.J. Mark. Res., (2): (9 pages).

Jabbour, C.J.C.; Santos, F.C.A.; Nagano, M.S., (2008). Environmental management system and human resource practices: is there a link between them in four Brazilian companies? J. Clean Prod., 16(1): 51-58 (8 pages).

Jabbar, M.H.; Abid, M., (2014). GHRM: Motivating employees towards organizational environmental performance. MAGNT Res. Report, 2(4): 267-278. (12 pages).

Jackson, S.E.; Renwick, D.W.; Jabbour, C.J.; Muller-Camen, M., (2011). State-of-the-art and future directions for green human resource management: Introduction to the special issue. Ger. J. Hum. Resour. Manage. 25(2): 99-116 (18 pages).

Jasch, C., (2000). Environmental performance evaluation and indicators, J. Clean. Prod., 8(1): 79-88 (10 pages).

Jabbour, C.J.C., (2011). How green are HRM practices, organizational culture, learning and teamwork? A Brazilian study", Ind. Commer. Train., 43(2): 98-105 (8 pages).

Jabbour, C.J.C., (2013). Environmental training in organizations: From a literature review to a framework for future research. Resour Conserv Recycl, 74: 144–155 (12 pages).

Jabbour, C.J.C.; Santos, F.C.A., (2008). The central role of human resource management in the search for sustainable organizations. Int. J. Human Resour. Manage., 19(12): 2133-2154 (22 pages).

Lülfs, R.; Hahn, R., (2013). Corporate greening beyond formal programs, initiatives, and systems: a conceptual model for voluntary pro-environmental behavior of employees, Eur. Manage. Rev, 10: 83–98 (16 pages).

Paillé, P.; Boiral, O., (2013). Pro-environmental behavior at work: Construct validity and determinants. J. Environ. Psychol., 36: 118-128. (11 pages).

Luu, T. T., (2018). Employees’ green recovery performance: the roles of green HR practices and serving culture, J. Sustain. Tour., 1308-1324 (17 pages).

Mathapati, C.M., (2013). Green HRM: A strategic facet. Tactful Manage. Res. J., 2(2): 1– 6 (6 pages).

McGuire, D.; Germain, M.L., (2015). Testing the existence of a green contract: An Exploratory Study. Adv. Dev. Hum. Resour., 17(4): 489–503. (15 pages)

Dias‐Sardinha, I.; Reijnders, L., (2001). Environmental performance evaluation and sustainability performance evaluation of organizations: an evolutionary framework. Eco‐Manage. Aud., 8: 71-79 (9 pages).

Henseler, J.; Hubona, G.; Ray, P.A., (2016). Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: updated guidelines. Ind. Manage. Data Syst. 116(1): 2-20 (19 pages).

Henseler, J.; Ringle, C. M.; Sarstedt, M., (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. J. Acad. Mark. Sci., 43(1), 115-135 (21 pages).

Henseler, J.; Ringle, C. M.; Sinkovics, R. R., (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. New Challenges to International Marketing. Adv. Int. Mark, 277-319 (43 pages).

Saeed, BB.; Afsar, B.; Hafeez, S.; Khan, I.; Tahir, M.; Afridi, MA., (2019). Promoting employee's pro- environmental behavior through green human resource management practices. Corp. Soc. Resp. Environ. Manage., 26: 424– 438 (15 pages).

Scherbaum, C. A.; Popovich, P. M.; Finlinson, S., (2008). Exploring individual‐level factors related to employee energy‐conservation behaviors at work. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol., 38(3): 818-835 (18 pages).

Sudin, S., (2011). Strategic Green HRM: A proposed model that supports Corporate Environmental Citizenship. Int. Conf. Soci. Econ. Develop, 10: 79- 83 (5 pages).

Zibarras, L.D.; Coan, P., (2015). HRM practices used to promote pro-environmental behavior: a UK survey. J Hum Resourt, 26(16): 2121-2142 (22 pages).