Department of Planning and Development, Kisii University, Kenya


Although a substantial body of research concurs that most urban areas have a challenge in providing adequate car parking space, there is a scarcity in the literature on how conformity to planning standards that regulates the provision of car parking spaces may be analyzed. This study, therefore, examines the extent to which the planning standards that regulate compliance with the provision of car parking spaces in the residential areas are enforced in Kenya, a case study of Kisii Town. It is anchored in the theory of regulatory compliance with a sample size of 364 residential developments proportionately drawn from the seven neighborhoods. Data were collected using questionnaires and analyzed using means, standard deviation, paired sample t-test and Pearson’s bivariate correlation. Research findings showed that although the recommended standard for car parking in Kenya is a ratio of one parking space for every two dwelling units, most developers disregarded the requirement. Hypothesis testing confirmed a significant difference between the recommended planning standards on the minimum number of parking spaces and the extent of conformity by developers, t (289) = 20.261, p=.000), thus, compliance declined by a mean of four. The study concludes that developers rarely comply with planning standard owing to insufficient development control. It is recommended that when approving building plans, it should be mandatory to make provision for adequate parking space followed by monitoring to ensure compliance. The study benefits the international readers by validating how conformity to the standards that regulate car parking space may be statistically analyzed.


Main Subjects

 Abu, T.; Mahto, S., (2019). Evaluation of parking problems for transportation system in Addis Ababa: A case study. Int. J. Res. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 7 (9):729-745 (17 pages).

Adams, C.A.; Opoku – Boahen, R.; Zambang, M.A.B., (2014). Parking management in metropolitan cities in West Africa case study of the Kumasi paid parking scheme, Ghana. Int. J. Eng. Sci., 3 (6): 01-08 (8 pages).

Ahmed, F., (2019). Kenya loses Ksh 50M daily on traffic jams. Citizen, (1 page).

Aljoufie, M., (2016). Analysis of Illegal parking behavior in Jeddah. Curr. Urban Stud., 4(4): 393-408 (15 pages).

Amini, E.; Oruji, S., (2017). Assess and challenges of vehicle parking scenario in the central core of Mysore City. IJEAT, 6 (6): 89-94 (6 pages).

Amini, E.; Shankar. B., (2017). Challenges of vehicle parking in the central business district of Sabzevar City, Iran. IJET, 9 (3): 1657-1660 (4 pages).

Arimah, B. C.; Adeagbo, D., (2000). Compliance with urban development and planning regulations in Ibadan, Nigeria. Habitat int., 24(3): 279–294 (16 pages).

Asiyanbola, R.A.; Akinpelu A.A., (2012). The Challenges of on-street parking in Nigerian cities transportation routes. IJDS, 1(2): 476–489 (14 pages).

Brent, E.; Leedy, P. D., (1990). Practical research: Planning and design. Teach. Sociol., 18(2): 248-249       (2 pages).

Chen, Q.; Wang, Y.; Pan, S., (2016). Characteristics of parking in Central Shanghai, China, J. Urban Plan Dev, 142(3):  05015012 (10 pages).

Dawra, M.; Kulshreshtha, S., (2017). A case study: Growing parking issues and effective parking management strategies. Int. J Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol., 6 (2): 1792-1798 (7 pages).      

El-Fadel, M.; Sbayti, H., (2001). Parking facilities in urban areas: Air and noise impacts. J. Urban Plan    Dev., 127(1): 16–33 (18 pages).          

Encyclopedia Britannica, (2011). Kenya (1 page).

Fiene, R., (2016). Theory of regulatory compliance. SSRN Electr. J. (9 pages).

Fincham, J. E., (2008). Response rates and responsiveness for surveys, standards, and the journal. Am J Pharm Educ., 72 (2): 43.          

Gupta, A.; Kulkarni, S.; Jathar, V.; Sharma, V.; Jain, N., (2017). Smart car parking management system using IoT. Am. J. Sci. Eng. Technol., 2(4): 112-119 (8 pages).

Harding, C., (2011). Lack of parking space has negative economic impact on Nairobi. Africa Business Insight(1 page).         

Hilvert, O.; Toledo, T.; Bekhor, S., (2012). Framework and model for parking decisions. Transport Res. Rec., 2319(1): 30–38 (9 pages).

Ibrahim, H. E.D., (2017). Car parking problem in urban areas, causes and solutions. SSRN Electr. J., 1-13 (13 pages).

Karanja, F.; Thiongo, J., (2019). Court suspends sh400 new parking fees hike by Nairobi County. Standard (1 page).

Kinyanjui, M., (2019a).  Finance bill passed: Motorists to pay double fees for parking in CBD. Star. (1 page).        

Kinyanjui, M., (2019b). Matatus impounded as cartels blamed for congesting CBD. Star. (1 page).        

Krejcie, R.V.; Morgan, D.W., (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educ. Psychol. Meas., 30: 607-610 (4 pages).  

Lewis-Beck, M. S.; Bryman, A.; Futing, L, T., (2004). The SAGE encyclopedia of social science research methods (Vols. 1-0). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1-4. (4 pages).

Liu, Y.; Wang, W.; Ding, C.; Guo, H.; Guo, W., Yao, L.; Xiong, H.; Tan, H., (2012). Metropolis parking problems and management planning solutions for traffic operation effectiveness. Math Probl. Eng., 1–6 (6 pages).  

Msigwa, R.E., (2013). Parking challenges facing urban cities in Tanzania: Evidence from Dar es Salaam City. JEDS, 4 (15): 94-102 (9 pages).

Nyangweso, J.E.O., (2015). Management of traffic circulation in Nairobi City, A case study of Upper Hill Area. Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Nairobi (120 pages).

Osoba, S. B., (2012). Appraisal of parking problems and traffic management measures in central business district in Lagos, Nigeria. J. Sustain. Dev, 5 (8): 105-115 (11 pages).

Rooshihan, M.; Rusuli, M.C.; Suhaila, A.K.; Hakim, M.; Ashlyzan, R.; Nazdrol, W.M., (2019). Rainbow smart parking system design: Problems into solutions for integrated parking management. Res. World Econ., 10(2): 66-69 (4 pages).

Sabir, S.; Anjum, A.G., (2017). Problems and prospects of curbside parking in Lahore: Policy Implications for Effective Management. Mehran University. Res. J. Eng. Technol., 36 (4): 867-880 (14 pages).

Sharma, K.M.; Prjapati, P.; Jain, M., (2017). Problem of parking and their possible solutions with special reference to Kota City. CPUH-Research J., 2(1): 18-24 (7 pages).

Süleyman, A., (2019). The Importance of urban transportation, managements and strategies for sustainable city. A paper presented at the International Conference on Contemporary Affairs in Architecture and Urbanism, 9-10 May 2019, 1-11 (11 pages).

The Republic of Kenya, (1968). The Building Code. Nairobi: Government Printer (138 pages).  

The Republic of Kenya, (2003). Persons with Disabilities Act. Nairobi: Government Printer (28 pages).  

The Republic of Kenya, (2007). Physical planning handbook (112 pages).  

The Republic of Kenya, (2019a). Physical and Land Use Planning Act. Nairobi: Government Printer (67 pages).

The Republic of Kenya, (2019b). Kenya population and housing census volume I: Population by county and sub-county (49 pages).

UN-Habitat, (2013). State of the world’s cities 2012/2013: Prosperity of cities. Nairobi: UN-Habitat (152 pages).  

Wang, X. Y.; Liu, C. X.; Xu, D., (2012). Analysis on parking problem for residential area. Appl. Mech. Mater., 193-194:1075–1078 (4 pages).

Warnecke, R. B., (2014). Sampling frames: Overview. Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online (6 pages).  

Waweru, T. (2017). Matatus to be barred from accessing Nairobi CBD in Gazette Notice. Standard (1 page).

Yan-ling, W.; Xin, W.; Ming-chun, Z., (2016). Current situation and analysis of parking problems in Beijing. Procedia Eng., 137:777–785 (9 pages).


International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management (IJHCUM) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in IJHCUM should be sent to the editorial office of IJHCUM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.