This study investigates the underlying factors elucidating why solid waste management in Eldoret Town, Kenya, has up to now remained inadequate notwithstanding the existing legal framework that mandates the County Government of Uasin Gishu to ensure that all residents have access to a clean and healthy environment. The study adopted a descriptive research design. While, primary data were collected through field photography and a questionnaire administered to the Director of Environment and Enforcement, secondary data was obtained from the County Government publications and reports. The study findings indicated that the reasons why the County Government of Uasin Gishu was not successfully discharging its statutory mandate included understaffing, low education level of technical staff, lack of an adequate number of receptacles, irregular solid waste collection, inadequate number of transportation vehicles, limited prioritization in the funding of solid waste management and a scarcity in the engagement of stakeholders. Key recommendations included preparing a comprehensive staff establishment policy that includes succession planning, prioritizing solid waste management within the annual development planning, regular solid waste collection, incorporating system approach to solid waste management, and adoption of smart waste management through the integration of Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing. This paper contributes to the international debate on urban management by critically investigating the institutional barriers towards solid waste management.