1 Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Advanced Engineering, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Harare Polytechnic College, Harare, Zimbabwe

3 Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, School of Renewable Energy, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

4 Department of Water Management and Governance, Institute for Water Education, IHE Delft, Netherlands



BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Water pollution and scarcity are becoming a serious challenge worldwide and methods of treating or recycling the wastewater are becoming expensive, especially in rural areas of least developed countries. An affordable wastewater recycling approach is imminent and should be cost-effective, using local materials to alleviate the water shortage and pollution challenges. The use of adsorbents from different biomass has been on the highway and tree barks are no exception for that matter. This research, therefore, intends to test the use of novel material’s capacity to remove Iodine from an aqueous solution under set conditions and use Bayesian statistics to validate the results as compared to the Frequentist approach.
METHODS:  This study is qualitative and developmental research where Bayesian and Conventional statistics were applied to complimentarly validate the results.  Kinetic models, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy were used to characterize the novel adsorbent to check for its potential and capability in removing Iodine from water. Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) was then used to select the best model.
FINDINGS: The findings demonstrated that the Bayesian approach was simultaneously applied with classical methods to compare their parameter estimation. Mupane biochar performed better than Mushuma, Pseudo-Second-Order model described both materials better with lower AICc values of 37.76 and 38.03 than other kinetic models respectively, indicating a chemisorption mechanism. Bayesian approach remarkably revealed slightly higher qt estimations of 40.712 and 41.639 mmol/g than conventional statistics with 40.01 and 40.29 mmol/g for Mushuma and Mupane biochar. Elovich model subsequently fit the data, henceforth demonstrating a heterogenous surface property with chemisorption phenomena. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy exhibited C (81.93 mol% and 86.91 mol %) and O (16.12 mol% and 11.49 mol%) for Mushuma and Mupane respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Material performances were insignificant however, Mupane marginally outperformed Mushuma bark.  However, further examination is required in determining the surface area, adsorption isotherms, and functional groups available. This African tree-bark biochar promised to be good adsorbents of wastewater contaminants and their kinetic mechanisms can be a benchmark to suggest their applications as potential candidates for environmental-ecosystem-protection and water re-use strategy, especially in rural and urban areas.

Graphical Abstract

Adsorption studies of Iodine removal by low-cost Bioinspired Mushuma and Mupane bark derived adsorbents for urban and rural wastewater reuse


Main Subjects


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