Document Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER

Authors

Department of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Payame Noor, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social resilience is one of the ways to reduce social problems and is a factor for the success of social welfare programs, increasing trust and social capital; therefore, in recent years, more attention has been paid to the issue of social resilience. The present study deals with theoretical and experimental analysis of social resilience.
METHODS: The aim of this study was to investigate the level of social resilience in region one of Karaj city by descriptive-analytical method. The statistical population consisted of residents of District one of Karaj city, 384 of whom were randomly selected. The researcher-made questionnaire was confirmed by face validity and Cronbach's alpha of 0.85.
FINDING: Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS software. The results showed that the confidence component was 2.53, 1.73, 2.52, 4.14, 4.01 and 8.86 that all coefficients were higher than 2.59 at the significance level of 0.01. For the social capital component was 1.65, 6.14, 07.03, -1.01, and -0.35, which showed that all coefficients were higher than 2.59 (14, 15) at the significance level of 0.01. For the component of commonalities between residents component was 7.87, 11.74, 7.21, 0.85-1.17, 2.93, showing that all coefficients were higher than 2.59 at the significance level of 0.01.   Also, the structural model of social cohesion, the criteria of goodness of fit index and the adjusted fit index were equal to 0.79, which indicates that the model has a moderate fit.
CONCLUSION:The purpose of this study was to investigate and measure the criteria of social resilience among the four dimensions of resilience in the settlement. As one of the most important ideas in urban planning is to create resilient cities that are resilient to social crises, therefore, paying attention to the dimensions of social cohesion, including: trust, social capital and commonalities between residents can ensure that a high level of social resilience is created and effectively operates in accordance with sustainability in society.

===============================================================================================
COPYRIGHTS: ©2021 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.
===================================================================================================

Keywords

Main Subjects

 Ahmadinia, L., (2017). Resilience at the level of old and new neighborhoods of Tabriz metropolis (Case study: Shatarban and Valiasr neighborhoods), Master Thesis, Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tabriz. (122 pages). (In Persian)

Akbari, T., (2018). Investigating the rate of urban social resilience Case study: Ilam city. Q. J. Urban Dev. Stut., 5: 51-62 (12 pages). (In Persian)

Adger, N., (2000). Social and ecological resilience: are they related, progress in human geography. 24(3): 347-364 (18 pages).

Bruneau, M.; Chang, S.E.; Eguchi, R.T.; Lee, G.C.; O’Rourke, T.D.; Reinhorn, A.M.; Shinozuka, M.; Tierney, K.; Wallace, W.A.; Von Winterfeldt, D., (2003). A framework to quantitatively assess and enhance the seismic resilience of communities. Earthquake spectra, 19(4): 733-752 (10 pages).

Cutter, S.L.; Barnes, L.; Berry, M.; Burton, C.; Evans, E.; Tate, E.; Webb, J., (2008). Community and regional resilience: Perspectives from hazards, disasters, and emergency management. Geography. 1(7): 2301-2306 (6 pages).

Colburn, L.; Seara, T., (2011),. September. Resilience, vulnerability, adaptive capacity, and social capital. In 2nd National Social Indicators Workshop.

Dalake H.; Beigi, M.; Shahivandi, A., (2017). Measuring the rate of social resilience in urban areas of Isfahan, Q. J. Sociol. So. Inst., 4(9): 227-252 (26 pages). (In Persian)

Durkim, D.E., (2002). On the division of social work, translated by Parham, Tehran, Markaz Publishing. (In Persian)

Dadashpour, H.; Adeli, Z., (2015). Measuring resource capacities in Qazvin Municipal Complex, Bi-Q. J. Crisis Manage., 4(8): 73-84 (12 pages). (In Persian)

Ebadollahzadeh Maleki, SH.; Khanlou, N.; Ziari, K.; Shali Amini, V., (2017). Measuring and evaluating social resilience to deal with natural crises; Case study: Earthquake in historical neighborhoods of Ardabil. 263-270 (8 pages). (In Persian)

Giddens, A., (2009 b). The politics of climate change. In A. Giddens (Ed.), the politics of climate change, Cambridge: Polity Press Foke.

Godschalk, D.R, (2003). Urban hazard mitigation: Creating resilient cities, Natural Hazards Review. 4(3): 136-143 (8 pages).

Glavovic, B.; Scheyvens, R.; Overton, J., (2003). Waves of adversity, layers of resilience. Exploring the sustainable livelihoods approach. In, D, J. Overton and B. Nowak (Eds) Contesting development: Pathways to better practice.

Kavian, F.; Salmani Moghadam, M., (2014). Application of land use planning in increasing urban resilience, Q. J. Arid Geogr. Stud., 5(17): 17-34 (18 pages). (In Persian)

Kimhi, S.; Shamai, M., (2004). Community resilience and the impact of stress, adult response to Israel’s withdrawal from Lebanon. J. Community Psychol., 32(4): 439-451 (13 pages).

Kalnins, A., (2018). Multicollinearity: How common factors cause Type 1 errors in multivariate regression. Strat. Manage. J., 39(8): 2362-2385 (24 pages).

Keck, M.; Sakdapolrak, P., (2013). What is social resilience? Lessons learned and ways forward. Erdkunde, 5-19 (15 pages). (In Persian)

Lak, A., (2013). Resilient urban design, Sofeh Magazine, 23(1). (In Persian)

Lucini, B., (2013). Social capital and sociological resilience in megacities context, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy., Int. J. Disaster Resilience Built Environ., 4(1): 58-71 (14 pages).

Mayunga, J.S., (2007). Understanding and applying the concept of community disaster resilient: A capital-based approach, a draft working paper prepared for the summer academy for social vulnerability and resilience building. 1(1): 1-16 (16 pages).

Graham, L.; Debucquoy, W.; Anguelovski, I., )2016(. The influence of urban development dynamics on community resilience practice in New York City after Super storm Sandy: Experiences from the Lower East Side and the Rockaways. Global Environ. Change, 40: 112-124 (13 pages).

OXFORD advance learners’ dictionary (7th ed). (2005), Oxford university press

Pelling, M., (2003). The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disasters and Social Resilience, Earthscan Publications Ltd, London, Sterling, VA

Partovi, P.; Behzadfar, M.; Shirani, Z., (2016). Urban design and social resilience. Case study: Jolfa neighborhood of Isfaha. J. Archit. Urban Plann., 17: 99-117 (19 pages). (In Persian)

Piran, P.; Asadi, A.; Dadgar, N., (2017). Investigating the role of social resilience in the success of the reconstruction process. Case Study: Rural Communities of Darb-e-Astaneh and Babapashman after the 1979 Earthquake in Silakhor Plain, Lorestan Province. J. Housing Rural Environ. 157: 87-100 (14 pages). (In Persian)

Roosta, M.; Ebrahimzadeh, I.; Istgoldi, M., (2017). Evaluation of social resilience in a known urban area, Zahedan city. Res. urban plann., 9(32): 1-14 (14 pages). (In Persian)

Rezai, M.R., (2010). Explaining the resilience of urban communities to reduce the effects of natural disasters (earthquakes); Case study: Tehran metropolis.

Rafieian, M.; Parvaresh, Z.; Matavaf, Sh., (2013). Assessing the resilience of new urban communities in the face of natural hazards Case study: New urban cities of Isfahan. Master Thesis, Shahid Beheshti University. (In Persian)

Schlör, H.; Venghaus, S.; Hake, J.F., (2018). The FEW-Nexus city index–Measuring urban resilience. Appl. Energy, 210: 382-392 (11 pages).

Salehi, I.; Aghababaei, M.T.; Sarmadi, H; Farzad Behtash M.R., (2011). Investigation of environmental resilience using causal network model. Environ. Sci., 37(59): 99-112 (14 pages). (In Persian)

Suárez, M.; Gómez-Baggethun, E.; Benayas, J.; Tilbury, D., (2016). Towards an urban resilience index: a case study in 50 Spanish cities. Sustainability, 8(8): 774.

Sapirstein, G., (2006). Social resilience: the forgotten dimension of disaster risk reduction. Jàmbá: J. Disaster Risk Stud., 1(1): 54-63 (10 pages).

Turner, B. L.; Kasperson, R.; Matson, P; McCarthy, J.; Corell, R.; Christensen, L.; Eckley, N.; Kasperson, J.; Luers, A.; Martello, M.; Polsky, C.; Pulsipher, A. and Schiller, A., (2003). A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 100(14): 8074-8079 (6 pages).

Twigg, J., (2007). Characteristics of a disaster-resilient community: a guidance note. Department for International Development (DFID).

Wikström, A., (2013). The Challenge of Change: Planning for social urban resilience. An analysis of contemporary planning aims and practices.

Zaker Haghighi, K.; Akbarian, Z., (2015). Deductive analysis of social resilience in historical-re

sidential neighborhoods and development of a strategic-operational plan for its promotion (Case Study: Hamedan, Charchereh and Ghorban Borj Mahallat). J. Discip. Geogr., 3(12): 23-48 (26 pages). (In Persian)


LETTERS TO EDITOR

International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management (IJHCUM) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in IJHCUM should be sent to the editorial office of IJHCUM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.


[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.

CAPTCHA Image