Management and Entrepreneurship Department, Coles College of Business Kennesaw State University, 560 Parliament Garden Way, Kennesaw, GA 30144-5591, USA


The central issue in strategy formulation and implementation process, or strategy-making, is the identification of environmental forces and the preparation of a plan of action to deal with them. This necessitates scanning the environment for gathering information. Environmental scanning should enable the firm to identify these forces. Doing this not only calls for information gathering, but also for deciding what to look for, where to look, and what to select from the very large amount of information available. These steps are based on culturally programmed perception processes. Also, strategy-making requires assessing internal capabilities of the firm. Both, internal and external steps in the strategy-making process involve perception and thinking, both of which are influenced by culture. Therefore, country differences can be expected in each step. In this regard, the process of strategy making varies among managers of different cultures. This paper addresses these issues and discusses implications of cultural differences on the strategy-making process.


Main Subjects

Barsoux, J.L.; Lawrence, P., (1991). The making of a French manager. Harvard Bus. Rev., 69: 58-67 (10 pages).

Barsoux, J.L.; Lawrence, P., (2013). French Management: Elitism in Action. Routledge.

Binder, J.R.; Westbury, C. F.; McKiernan, K.; Possing, E. T.; Medler, D., (2005). Distinct brain systems for processing concrete and abstract concepts. J. Cogn. Neuroscience, 17(6): 905-917 (13 pages).

Crutch, S.J.; Warrington, E. K., (2005). Abstract and concrete concepts have structurally different representational frameworks. Brain, 128(3): 615-627 (13 pages).

Diener, E.; Oishi, S.; Lucas, R.E., (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Ann. Rev. Psychol., 54(1): 403-425 (24 pages).

Doktor, R., (1983). Some tentative comments on Japanese and American decision making. Decis. Sci., 14(4): 607-615 (9 pages).

Hofstede, G., (1993). Cultural constraints in management. Acad. Manage. Exec., 7(1): 81-94 (14 pages).

Iwata, R., (1982). Japanese-Style Management: Its Foundations and Prospects. Tokyo: Asian Productivity Organization.

Kolde, E.J., (1985). Environment of international business, Boston, MA: PWS- Kent Publishing Company.

Lee, J.A., (1966). Cultural analysis in overseas operations. Harvard Bus. Rev., 44: 106-114 (8 pages).

Marsh, H.W.; Kong, C.K.; Hau, K.T., (2001). Extension of the internal/external frame of reference model of self-concept formation: Importance of native and nonnative languages for Chinese students. J. Educ. Psychol., 93(3): 543-553 (10 pages).

Maruyama, M., (1984). Alternative concepts of management: Insights from Asia and Africa.” Asia Pac. J. Manage., 1(2):100-111 (12 pages).

Masuda, T.; Nisbett, R.E., (2001). Attending holistically versus analytically: comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 81(5), 922-934 (13 pages).

Nakamura, H., (1964). Ways of Thinking of Eastern People, Honolulu, HI: East-West Center Press.

Nisbett, R.E., (2003). The geography of thought, New York, The Free Press.

Pattee, H.H., (2012). Evolving self-reference: matter, symbols, and semantic closure. In Laws, Language and Life. Springer Netherlands, 211-226 (16 pages).

Schneider, S.C., (1989). Strategy formulation: The impact of national culture. Organ. Stud., 10 (2): 149-168 (20 pages).

Tusunoda, T., (1975). The differences of recognition mechanism toward natural sounds between Japanese and Westerners. Med. Biol., 88: 309-314 (6 pages).