Urban ecology and related environmental concerns
J. Figueroa Jiménez1; N. Guerrero Del Castillo; J. C. Musa Wasil; K. Malave-Llamas; C. Morales Agrinzoni
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the state of Florida there are more than 2.5 million acres of fresh water available; rivers, streams, springs, artificial canals, wetlands, and lakes. Polk and Osceola Counties are under a class III classification, which means that are considered recreational waters, ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the state of Florida there are more than 2.5 million acres of fresh water available; rivers, streams, springs, artificial canals, wetlands, and lakes. Polk and Osceola Counties are under a class III classification, which means that are considered recreational waters, and people can carry out fishing and/or swimming activities within the facility. Some of the problems these lakes face is eutrophication due to pollutants such as phosphorous, nitrogen, and growth of cyanobacteria, impacting directly the quality and public health. The aim of this analysis is evaluating the effect of the presence of Total phosphorus and Total nitrogen in the water quality, and an indirect analysis of cyanobacteria by the evaluation of Secchi Disk and Chlorophyll-a analysis, in order to identify statistically differences between two counties in Florida state, to contribute with a possible improvements and ecological buffer plan to be used to reduce pollution in the lakes of the state of Florida.METHODS: Based on this premise, it is intended to analyze secondary data on the quality of the water in the lakes of Polk and Osceola counties by evaluating the trophic status in each lake, and statistically evaluated using ANOVA, histograms and pareto analysis.FINDINGS: Results obtained determined that lakes from Osceola County are more contaminated that lakes from Polk County since it has three lakes in eutrophic status vs two lakes in eutrophic conditions at Polk County (from 52-69 for Osceola County and 42-59 for Polk County). Similar pattern is observed when evaluating histograms and pareto plots for each parameter between the counties. ANOVA test showed that F>F critical and p-value<α, demonstrating that there is difference between both counties.CONCLUSION: After the analysis was completed, it is recommended an evaluation by zone and improve water quality. It has been demonstrated that there is a need of new alternatives for the conservation and preservation of lakes in the state of Florida. Buffer zones are an alternative that can be very beneficial to conservation of lakes functioning also as a natural home for the flora and fauna. For the zone studied, it is recommended the use of Riparian buffers. These systems are known to improve and maintain water quality; at the same time protecting and improving fish and wildlife habitat.
Urban management and public health
N.Y. Guerrero Del Castillo; J.C. Musa Wasil; K.J. Malavé Llamas; C. Morales Agrinzoni
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The lakes in the state of Minnesota (MN) have undergone accelerated changes with the passing of time, where cattle ranching, agriculture, the increase of industrial jobs and urban area development have changed their condition from pristine to critical. To evaluate this problem, ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The lakes in the state of Minnesota (MN) have undergone accelerated changes with the passing of time, where cattle ranching, agriculture, the increase of industrial jobs and urban area development have changed their condition from pristine to critical. To evaluate this problem, secondary data obtained from the public domain of three lakes from a county used for a long period for agriculture and cattle (Carver County) and three lakes from a county where the land has been used more for housing and industrial economy (Hennepin County). The aim of the study was to use the information to evaluate the trophic status, and compare the results of the lakes of rural areas versus lakes in urban areas in order to create a possible mitigation plan to improve the condition of the area.METHODS: Trophic status was determined to evaluate the water quality of each lake. ANOVA analysis was employed to analyze the data set obtained from the public domain in the official webpage of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.FINDINGS: Data results for total phosphorus, Secchi Disk and Chlorophyll-a, showed that all lakes are under eutrophic-hypereutrophic status with Trophic State Index (TSI) results between 59 to 80. Hennepin County had two of the three lakes evaluated in hypereutrophic states when compared with Carver County lakes. Carver County has only one lake out of the three evaluated under hypereutrophic conditions. Statistical analysis showed that p <α. The results demonstrated that lakes near areas used mainly for urban/industrial purposes are more contaminated than lakes near areas used for agriculture/livestock.CONCLUSION: The restoration of wetlands that are near the lakes is proposed as a possible bioremediation method to improve water quality. Alternatively, an artificial wetland could be implemented in the lakes that do not have this natural system. Placing a Subsurface Flow System (SFS) artificial wetland in parallel trenches, which bypasses the lake and/or into the mouth of the river, would allow the sedimentation process to occur in these spaces. In addition, the use of Phosphor-Accumulator Organisms (PAO) and specialized aquatic plants, such as Hydrodictyon reticulatum, Elodea canadensis, Eichhornia crasspies, Eleocharis plantaginea, Pistia stratiotes and Hydrilla verticillate will trap contaminants and aid in their removal.