Document Type: CASE STUDY

Authors

1 Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics (ISPA), University of Karachi, Pakistan

2 Army Public Degree College Malir Cantt, Karachi, Pakistan

3 Center for Plant Conservation, University of Karachi, Pakistan

4 National Center for Proteomics, University of Karachi, Pakistan

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As the population grows on the earth, transport and industrial sector have become the main parameters whose emissions increase pollutants like greenhouse gasses that have a snowballing impact on urban air quality and life in the area. This study aims to analyze the emission of greenhouse gases in the highly urbanized city of Karachi through Geographic information technique.
METHODS: This study used the Inverse distance weighted technique of Geographic information system to highlight the emission of greenhouse gases in ten different sites of Karachi, Pakistan. Target areas include Baloch colony, Clifton, Civic center, Garden police headquarters, II Chundrigar, Karimabad, Korangi, Nazimabad, SITE area and SUPARCO.
FINDING: Results showed that Baloch colony, Korangi, Nazimabad, SITE area and Garden police headquarter lies in the highly polluted areas among these ten sites of Karachi city. Karimabad with moderate pollution, II Chundriger and SUPARCO with low pollution rate and Clifton had very low pollution.
CONCLUSION: As all of the observed ten sites of the city have dense populations with heavy traffic and industrial pollution, there is a need to take serious steps towards areas indicated in this study to safeguard the people from the effects of GHG emission.  With the help of this study the general population and all concerned authorities with highly polluted areas, can be familiarized so that efficient and different ways to overcome the pollution, like plantation, can be applied.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Main Subjects

Afzal, M.; Mehdi, F.S.; Siddiqui, Z.S., (2004). Effect of relative humidity and temperature on airborne fungal allergens of Karachi City. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 7(2): 159-162 (4 pages).

Afzal, M.; Mehdi, F.S.; Siddiqui, Z.S.; Shaukat, S.S., (2005). Use of Rhizophora mucronata Poir, against the growth of some atmospheric fungal allergens. Int. J. Biol. Biotech., 2: 941-945 (5 pages).

Becker, K.M.; Glass, G.E.; Brathwaite, W.; Zenilman, J.M., (1998). Geographic epidemiology of gonorrhea in Baltimore, Maryland, using a geographic information system. Am. J. Epidemiol, 147(7):709-716 (8 pages).

Bréon, FM.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P., (2015). An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emis­sions from atmospheric concentration measure­ments. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15(4): 1707–1724 (18 pages).

Briggs, D.J.; de Hoogh, C.; Gulliver, J.; Wills, J.; Elliott, P.; Kingham, S.; Smallbone, K., (2000). A regression-based method for mapping traffic-related air pollution: application and testing in four contrasting urban environments. Sci. Total Environ., 253(1-3):151-167 (17 pages).

Brown, D.; Sadiq, R.; Hewage, K., (2017). A health-based life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) for cement manufacturing: a comparative study of China and Canada. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 19(3): 679-687 (9 Page).

Bullen, N.; Moon, G.; Jones, K., (1996). Defining localities for health planning: a GIS approach, Soc. Sci. Med., 42(6): 801-816 (16 pages).

Cambaliza, MOL.; Shepson, PB.; Bogner, J.; Caulton, DR.; Stirm, B.; Sweeney, C.; Montzka, SA.; Gurney, KR.; Spokas, K.; Salmon, OE.; Lavoie, TN.; Hendricks, A.; Mays, K.; Turnbull, J.; Miller, BR.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K.; Karion, A.; Moser, B.; Miller, C.; Obermeyer, C.; Whetstone, J.; Prasad, K.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S., (2015). Quantification and source apportionment of the methane emission flux from the city of Indianapolis. Elem. Sci. Anth, 3.

Chakraborty, J.; Armstrong. M. P., (1997). Exploring the use of buffer analysis for the identification of impacted areas in environmental equity assessment. Cartogr. Geogr. Inf. Syst., 24: 145-157 (13 pages).

Crippa, M.; Guizzardi, D.; Muntean, M.; Schaaf, E.; Dentener, F.; van Aardenne, J.A.; Monni, S.; Doering, U.; Olivier, J.G.; Pagliari, V.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; (2018). Gridded emissions of air pollutants for the period 1970–2012 within EDGAR v4. 3.2. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10(4): 1987-2013 (27 pages).

Hartmann, D.L.; Klein Tank, A.M.G.; Rusticucci, M.; Alexander, L.V.; Brönnimann, S.; Charabi, Y.; Dentener, F.J.; Dlugokencky, E.J.; Easterling, D.R.; Kaplan, A.; Soden, B.J.; Thorne, P.W.; Wild, M.; Zhai, P.M.; (2013). Observations: Atmosphere and Surface. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, TF, Qin, D, Plattner, G-K, Tignor, M, Allen, SK, Boschung, J, Nauels, A, Xia, Y, Bex, V and Midgley, PM (eds.), Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. 159-254 (96 pages).

Katsouyanni, K., (1995). Health effects of air pollution in southern Europe: are there interacting factors? Environ. Health perspect., 103(suppl 2): 23-27 (5 pages).

Kazi, A., (2014). Appraisal of air and water pollution in Hyderabad and Karachi, Pakistan. QUEST-RJ, 13(1).

Khan, I.A.; Arsalan, M.H.; Siddiqui, M.F.; Zeeshan, S.; Shaukat, S.S.; (2010). Spatial association of asthma and vegetation in Karachi: A GIS perspective. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 42(5): 3547-3554 (8 pages).

Kulldorff, M., (1999). Geographical information systems (GIS) and community health: Some statistical issues. J. Public Health Manage. Practice, 5: 100-106 (7 pages).

Kulldorff, M., Feuer, E.J.; Miller, B.; Freedman. L., (1997). Breast cancer clusters in the northeast United States: a geographical analysis. Amer. J. Epidemiol., 146: 161-170 (10 pages).

Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Andreae, T.W.; Hoffer, A.; Andreae, M.O., (2010). Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in biomass burning aerosols: implications for photochemical production and degradation in smoke layers. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10(5): 2209-2225 (17 pages).

Lippmann, M. ed., (2000). Environmental toxicants: human exposures and their health effects. John Wiley & Sons.

Liu, Z.; He, C.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, J., (2014). How much of the world’s land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchi­cal framework for avoiding confusion. Landscape Ecol., 29(5): 763–771 (9 pages).

McClellan, R.O.; Frampton, M.W.; Koutrakis, P.; McDonnell, W.F.; Moolgavkar, S.; North, D.W.; Smith, A.E.; Smith, R.L; Utell, M.J., (2009). Critical considerations in evaluating scientific evidence of health effects of ambient ozone: a conference report. Inhal. toxicol., 21(sup2): 1-36 (36 pages).

Mehdi, M.R.; Kim, M.; Seong, J.C.; Arsalan, M.H., (2011). Spatio-temporal patterns of road traffic noise pollution in Karachi, Pakistan. Environ. Int., 37(1): 97-104 (8 pages).

Mentz, G.; Robins, T.G.; Batterman, S.; Naidoo, R.N., (2018). Acute respiratory symptoms associated with short term fluctuations in ambient pollutants among schoolchildren in Durban, South Afr. Environ. Pollut., 233: 529-539 (11 pages).

Neethirajan, S.; Ragavan, K.V.; Weng, X., (2018). Agro-defense: Biosensors for food from healthy crops and animals. Trends Food sci. Tech., 73: 25-44 (20 pages)

Plant, G.; Kort, E.A.; Floerchinger, C.; Gvakharia, A.; Vimont, I.; Sweeney, C., (2019). Large fugitive methane emissions from urban centers along the US East Coast. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46(14): 8500–8507 (8 pages).

Qureshi, S.; Breuste, J.H.; Lindley, S.J., (2010). Green Space Functionality along an Urban Gradient in Karachi, Pakistan: A Socio- Ecological Study. Hum Ecol, 38: 283-294 (11 pages).

Ren, X.; Salmon, O.E.; Hansford, J.R.; Ahn, D.; Hall, D.; Benish, S.E.; Stratton, P.R.; He, H.; Sahu, S.; Grimes, C.; Heimburger, A.M.F.; Martin, C.R.; Cohen, M.D.; Stunder, B.; Salawitch, R.J.; Ehrman, S.H.; Shepson, P.B.; Dickerson, R.R., (2018). Meth­ane Emissions From the Baltimore-Washington Area Based on Airborne Observations: Com­parison to Emissions Inventories. J Geophys Res- Atmos 123(16): 8869-8882 (14 pages).

Sajjad, S. H.; Blond, N.; Clappier, A.; Raza, A.; Shirazi, S. A.; Shakrullah, K., (2010). The preliminary study of urbanization, fossil fuels consumptions and CO 2 emission in Karachi. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9(13): 1941-1948 (8 pages).

Sanches, S.B.; Gallardo, R.M.; Navarrochavarria, J.A.; Cabrera Munoz, M.I., (1999). Allergic fungal sinusitis recent developments. Rev. Allergy, 46: 145-150 (6 pages).

Sax, S.N.; Gentry, P.R.; Van Landingham, C.; Clewell, H.J.; Mundt, K.A.; (2020). Extended analysis and evidence integration of chloroprene as a human carcinogen. Risk Analysis, 40(2): 294-318. (25 pages)

Schulz, A.J.; Williams, D.R.; Israel, B.A.; Lempert, L.B., (2002). Racial and spatial relations as fundamental determinants of health in Detroit, Milbank Q, 80: 677-707 (30 pages).

Sinha, D., (2018). Ambient Air Quality Status in an Industrial Area of Raipur City in the Year 2015. J. Appl. Chem., 7(3): 649-655 (7 page).

Sun, M.; Wang, Y.; Shi, L.; Klemeš, J.J., (2018). Uncovering energy use, carbon emissions and environmental burdens of pulp and paper industry: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev, 92: 823-833 (11 page).

Syed, M.; Saleem, T.; Shuja-ur-Rehman, Iqbal, M.A.; Javed, F.; Khan, M.B.S.; Sadiq, K.; (2010). Effects of leather industry on health and recommendations for improving the situation in Pakistan. Arch. Environ.Occup. H., 65(3): 163-172 (10 page).

UN., (2018). World Urbanization Prospects 2018.

UNFCCC., (2015). Paris Agreement, FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/ Rev.1., UNFCCC.

Vine, M.F.; Degnan D.; Hanchette, C., (1997). Geographic Information systems: their use in environmental epidemiologic research. Environ. Health Persp., 105: 598-605 (8 pages).

Zhong, Q.; Huang, Y.; Shen, H.; Chen, Y.; Chen, H.; Huang, T.; Zeng, E.Y.; Tao, S., (2017). Global  estimates of carbon monoxide emissions from 1960 to 2013. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 24(1): 864-873 (10 pages).

Afzal, M.; Mehdi, F.S.; Siddiqui, Z.S., (2004). Effect of relative humidity and temperature on airborne fungal allergens of Karachi City. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 7(2): 159-162 (4 pages).

Afzal, M.; Mehdi, F.S.; Siddiqui, Z.S.; Shaukat, S.S., (2005). Use of Rhizophora mucronata Poir, against the growth of some atmospheric fungal allergens. Int. J. Biol. Biotech., 2: 941-945 (5 pages).

Becker, K.M.; Glass, G.E.; Brathwaite, W.; Zenilman, J.M., (1998). Geographic epidemiology of gonorrhea in Baltimore, Maryland, using a geographic information system. Am. J. Epidemiol, 147(7):709-716 (8 pages).

Bréon, FM.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P., (2015). An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emis­sions from atmospheric concentration measure­ments. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15(4): 1707–1724 (18 pages).

Briggs, D.J.; de Hoogh, C.; Gulliver, J.; Wills, J.; Elliott, P.; Kingham, S.; Smallbone, K., (2000). A regression-based method for mapping traffic-related air pollution: application and testing in four contrasting urban environments. Sci. Total Environ., 253(1-3):151-167 (17 pages).

Brown, D.; Sadiq, R.; Hewage, K., (2017). A health-based life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) for cement manufacturing: a comparative study of China and Canada. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 19(3): 679-687 (9 Page).

Bullen, N.; Moon, G.; Jones, K., (1996). Defining localities for health planning: a GIS approach, Soc. Sci. Med., 42(6): 801-816 (16 pages).

Cambaliza, MOL.; Shepson, PB.; Bogner, J.; Caulton, DR.; Stirm, B.; Sweeney, C.; Montzka, SA.; Gurney, KR.; Spokas, K.; Salmon, OE.; Lavoie, TN.; Hendricks, A.; Mays, K.; Turnbull, J.; Miller, BR.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K.; Karion, A.; Moser, B.; Miller, C.; Obermeyer, C.; Whetstone, J.; Prasad, K.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S., (2015). Quantification and source apportionment of the methane emission flux from the city of Indianapolis. Elem. Sci. Anth, 3.

Chakraborty, J.; Armstrong. M. P., (1997). Exploring the use of buffer analysis for the identification of impacted areas in environmental equity assessment. Cartogr. Geogr. Inf. Syst., 24: 145-157 (13 pages).

Crippa, M.; Guizzardi, D.; Muntean, M.; Schaaf, E.; Dentener, F.; van Aardenne, J.A.; Monni, S.; Doering, U.; Olivier, J.G.; Pagliari, V.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; (2018). Gridded emissions of air pollutants for the period 1970–2012 within EDGAR v4. 3.2. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10(4): 1987-2013 (27 pages).

Hartmann, D.L.; Klein Tank, A.M.G.; Rusticucci, M.; Alexander, L.V.; Brönnimann, S.; Charabi, Y.; Dentener, F.J.; Dlugokencky, E.J.; Easterling, D.R.; Kaplan, A.; Soden, B.J.; Thorne, P.W.; Wild, M.; Zhai, P.M.; (2013). Observations: Atmosphere and Surface. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, TF, Qin, D, Plattner, G-K, Tignor, M, Allen, SK, Boschung, J, Nauels, A, Xia, Y, Bex, V and Midgley, PM (eds.), Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. 159-254 (96 pages).

Katsouyanni, K., (1995). Health effects of air pollution in southern Europe: are there interacting factors? Environ. Health perspect., 103(suppl 2): 23-27 (5 pages).

Kazi, A., (2014). Appraisal of air and water pollution in Hyderabad and Karachi, Pakistan. QUEST-RJ, 13(1).

Khan, I.A.; Arsalan, M.H.; Siddiqui, M.F.; Zeeshan, S.; Shaukat, S.S.; (2010). Spatial association of asthma and vegetation in Karachi: A GIS perspective. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 42(5): 3547-3554 (8 pages).

Kulldorff, M., (1999). Geographical information systems (GIS) and community health: Some statistical issues. J. Public Health Manage. Practice, 5: 100-106 (7 pages).

Kulldorff, M., Feuer, E.J.; Miller, B.; Freedman. L., (1997). Breast cancer clusters in the northeast United States: a geographical analysis. Amer. J. Epidemiol., 146: 161-170 (10 pages).

Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Andreae, T.W.; Hoffer, A.; Andreae, M.O., (2010). Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in biomass burning aerosols: implications for photochemical production and degradation in smoke layers. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10(5): 2209-2225 (17 pages).

Lippmann, M. ed., (2000). Environmental toxicants: human exposures and their health effects. John Wiley & Sons.

Liu, Z.; He, C.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, J., (2014). How much of the world’s land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchi­cal framework for avoiding confusion. Landscape Ecol., 29(5): 763–771 (9 pages).

McClellan, R.O.; Frampton, M.W.; Koutrakis, P.; McDonnell, W.F.; Moolgavkar, S.; North, D.W.; Smith, A.E.; Smith, R.L; Utell, M.J., (2009). Critical considerations in evaluating scientific evidence of health effects of ambient ozone: a conference report. Inhal. toxicol., 21(sup2): 1-36 (36 pages).

Mehdi, M.R.; Kim, M.; Seong, J.C.; Arsalan, M.H., (2011). Spatio-temporal patterns of road traffic noise pollution in Karachi, Pakistan. Environ. Int., 37(1): 97-104 (8 pages).

Mentz, G.; Robins, T.G.; Batterman, S.; Naidoo, R.N., (2018). Acute respiratory symptoms associated with short term fluctuations in ambient pollutants among schoolchildren in Durban, South Afr. Environ. Pollut., 233: 529-539 (11 pages).

Neethirajan, S.; Ragavan, K.V.; Weng, X., (2018). Agro-defense: Biosensors for food from healthy crops and animals. Trends Food sci. Tech., 73: 25-44 (20 pages)

Plant, G.; Kort, E.A.; Floerchinger, C.; Gvakharia, A.; Vimont, I.; Sweeney, C., (2019). Large fugitive methane emissions from urban centers along the US East Coast. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46(14): 8500–8507 (8 pages).

Qureshi, S.; Breuste, J.H.; Lindley, S.J., (2010). Green Space Functionality along an Urban Gradient in Karachi, Pakistan: A Socio- Ecological Study. Hum Ecol, 38: 283-294 (11 pages).

Ren, X.; Salmon, O.E.; Hansford, J.R.; Ahn, D.; Hall, D.; Benish, S.E.; Stratton, P.R.; He, H.; Sahu, S.; Grimes, C.; Heimburger, A.M.F.; Martin, C.R.; Cohen, M.D.; Stunder, B.; Salawitch, R.J.; Ehrman, S.H.; Shepson, P.B.; Dickerson, R.R., (2018). Meth­ane Emissions From the Baltimore-Washington Area Based on Airborne Observations: Com­parison to Emissions Inventories. J Geophys Res- Atmos 123(16): 8869-8882 (14 pages).

Sajjad, S. H.; Blond, N.; Clappier, A.; Raza, A.; Shirazi, S. A.; Shakrullah, K., (2010). The preliminary study of urbanization, fossil fuels consumptions and CO 2 emission in Karachi. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9(13): 1941-1948 (8 pages).

Sanches, S.B.; Gallardo, R.M.; Navarrochavarria, J.A.; Cabrera Munoz, M.I., (1999). Allergic fungal sinusitis recent developments. Rev. Allergy, 46: 145-150 (6 pages).

Sax, S.N.; Gentry, P.R.; Van Landingham, C.; Clewell, H.J.; Mundt, K.A.; (2020). Extended analysis and evidence integration of chloroprene as a human carcinogen. Risk Analysis, 40(2): 294-318. (25 pages)

Schulz, A.J.; Williams, D.R.; Israel, B.A.; Lempert, L.B., (2002). Racial and spatial relations as fundamental determinants of health in Detroit, Milbank Q, 80: 677-707 (30 pages).

Sinha, D., (2018). Ambient Air Quality Status in an Industrial Area of Raipur City in the Year 2015. J. Appl. Chem., 7(3): 649-655 (7 page).

Sun, M.; Wang, Y.; Shi, L.; Klemeš, J.J., (2018). Uncovering energy use, carbon emissions and environmental burdens of pulp and paper industry: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev, 92: 823-833 (11 page).

Syed, M.; Saleem, T.; Shuja-ur-Rehman, Iqbal, M.A.; Javed, F.; Khan, M.B.S.; Sadiq, K.; (2010). Effects of leather industry on health and recommendations for improving the situation in Pakistan. Arch. Environ.Occup. H., 65(3): 163-172 (10 page).

UN., (2018). World Urbanization Prospects 2018.

UNFCCC., (2015). Paris Agreement, FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/ Rev.1., UNFCCC.

Vine, M.F.; Degnan D.; Hanchette, C., (1997). Geographic Information systems: their use in environmental epidemiologic research. Environ. Health Persp., 105: 598-605 (8 pages).

Zhong, Q.; Huang, Y.; Shen, H.; Chen, Y.; Chen, H.; Huang, T.; Zeng, E.Y.; Tao, S., (2017). Global  estimates of carbon monoxide emissions from 1960 to 2013. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 24(1): 864-873 (10 pages).