Document Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER

Authors

1 School of Architecture, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department Architecture and Urban Planning, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The city is not just about appearance. People are present and live with architectural and urban spaces. The changes of Bojnord city after becoming the provincial capital have had many and sometimes destructive effects on the city. The issue of bad identity of cities is not a new one, but how to deal with it, despite the history of the problem, is still unclear. The present research tends to shape the specific identity of Bojnord city based on the cultural values ​​of the city (collective memories and narratives). Therefore, the concept of collective memories of the city has been investigated based on the experiences of residents of Bojnord.
METHODS: The research was carried out using the Grounded Theory method and qualitative paradigm. The participants included 51 people including 32 women and 19 men, residing (as native) in Bojnord. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data.
FINDING:  According to the findings, the results of the review of the data were inferred in the 6-core categories, 41-Categories, 55-main Concepts, and 156-point (code) in the Maxqda software. Also, "location tagging (Space labeling) "(46.8percent/73 referrals) and "Native Arts and Local Events" (22.4 percent/35 referrals) were identified as the two main categories with the highest frequency of referenced indications. “The history of the city and its structure" (12.3 percent / 19 referrals) and "wall design" (7.7percent/ 12 referrals) are in the next priorities, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Results indicate the urgent need to identify the particular concept of “collective memories" of each city to revitalize cultural value and the individual and social identity of it, over time.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Bayliss, D., (2004(. Creative planning in Ireland: the role of culture‐led development in Irish planning. Eur. Plan. Stud., 12(4): 497-515 (19 pages).

Confino, A., (1997). Collective memory and Cultural History: Problems of Method., Am. Hist. Rev., 102(5): 1386-1403 (18 pages).

Crinson, M., (2005). Urban Memory -History and amnesia in the modern city, published by Routledge (233 pages).

Daneshpour, A.H., (2004). An introduction to the meaning and function of the identity of the man-made environment. , Bagh Nazar J., 1: 59-70 (12 pages). (In Persian).

Dogan, E., Sirkeci, I., (2013). The impact of a mega-event on city branding: The European Capital of Culture 2010 and the image of Istanbul, Border Crossing. Transnational Working Papers., 1303: 29-50 (22 pages).

Ebrahimi Nezhad, A., Moghadasian, M., (2014). Recognition of Valuable Variables depending to Historical-Cultural Contexts for Planning for Urban Restoration, Case Study: city of Mashhad., Articles of the 6th National Conference on Urban Planning and Management concentrating on the components of the Islamic city of Mashhad (17 pages). (In Persian).

Eyerman, R., (2001). Cultural trauma: Slavery and the formation of African American identity. Cambridge University Press. (304 pages).

Farasat, N., (2011). Qualitative research methodology in psychology: Combined approaches, translated by: Amani, M., Shabahang, M. J., Sanjesh and Danesh Press., 1st Edition (In Persian).

Fazeli, N., (2013). Culture and the city; cultural change in urban discourses. Tisa press., 2nd edition (In Persian).

Glaser, B.G.; Strauss, A.L.; Strutzel, E., (1968). The discovery of grounded theory; strategies for qualitative research. Nurs. Res., 17(4): (364 pages).

Halbwachs, M., (1939). Individual consciousness and collective mind. University of Chicago Press Terms and Conditions: 812-822 (11 pages).

Harold, J., Fong, E., (2017). Mobilizing memory: collective memory schemas and the social boundaries of Jews in Toronto. Ethn. Racial Stud.: 1-19 (19 pages).

Hobard, Ph., (2015). City, translated by Khakbaz, A., Scientific and Cultural Publishing Company., 1st Edition (In Persian).

Hojjat, I., (2005). Humanistic Identity, Identity Making Human (Reviewing in relation of Identity and Architecture). Fine Arts., 24: 55-62 (8 pages). (In Persian).

Huyssen, A., (1997).The Voids of Berlin, Crit. Inq., 24(1): 57-81 (25 pages).

Jein, G.; Rorato, L.; Saunders, A., (2017). Introduction: City margins, city memories. J. Contemp. Eur. Stud., 25(4) 405-411 (7 pages).

Khankeh, H.R.; Mohammadi, R.; Ahmadi, F., (2007). The status of health service supply at the time of natural disasters: A qualitative study. Iran. Q. Nur., 20(51): 85- 95 (11 pages). (In Persian).

Lak, A., (2014). Application of Grounded Theory in Urban Design Research., Sofeh J., 64: 43-60 (18 pages). (In Persian).

Lewicka, M., (2008). Place attachment, place identity, and place memory: Restoring the forgotten city past. J. Environ. Psychol., 28: 209–231 (23 pages).

Massoud, M., Beigzadeh, H.R., (2012). Intermediate Buildings in Historical Contexts, Azarakhsh Press., Tehran (In Persian).

Misztal, B.A., (2010). Collective memory in a global age: Learning how and what to remember. Curr. Sociol., 58(1): 24-44 (21 pages)

Mumford, l., (1970). The culture of cities, United States of America: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich., Publishers. (634 pages).

Naghizadeh, M., (2002). The Effect of Architecture and City on Cultural Values, Fine Arts Q., 11: 62-76 (15 pages). (In Persian).

Rahimnia, R., Gharati, M., Zamanfar, A., (2015). Application of Grounded Theory in Researches related to Native Knowledge of Protection; An Approach to the Conservation of Intangible Cultural Heritage, Two Quarterlies of Native Iranian Studies., 2(4): 143-175 (33 pages). (In Persian).

Rapoport, A., (2008). Some further thoughts on culture and environment. J. Archit. Plann. Res., 2(1): 16-39 (24 pages).

Rezvani, L., (2016). The Culture and Identity of Neighborhood, Sociologists’ Press., 1st Edition (In Persian).

​​  Ryan, M.; Ogilvie, M., (2011). Uncovering hidden meanings, values and insights through photos., E.J.B.R.M., 9(1): 25-34 (10 pages).

Tighe, J.R.; Opelt, T.J., (2016). Collective memory and planning: the continuing legacy of urban renewal in Asheville, NC. J. Plann. History, 15(1): 46-67 (22 pages).

Weitz, M., (1972). Eh gombrich, Aby Warburg: An Intellectual Biography: With a memoir of the library by F. Saxl., London, the Warburg Institute. 107-110 (3 pages).

Yuen, B., (2005(. Searching for place identity in Singapore. Habitat Int., 29(2): 197-214 (18 pages).