Document Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER

Author

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

Abstract

This study was carried out to reveal the plastic wastes separation practice and disposal mechanism as well as awareness of the negative impact of plastic wastes on the environment, in Makurdi area of Benue State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered to 468 individual respondents in 6 sub-locations of the city. Inquisition was also made from 10 hospitals, 6 market centers and the waste management body. The results revealed that 81.2% of the respondents do not separate plastic wastes from other waste stream. All the hospitals and markets do not sort at all. The government agency responsible for the final management of the waste stream does not have a practice of sorting plastic wastes from the whole waste collected with a view to achieving material and energy recovery. The most adopted methods of disposal for plastic wastes by all the stakeholders considered are dumping/burning and dumping.  50.4% of the respondents adopted dumping/burning as a disposal method for plastic wastes while 19.2% burn theirs. Although almost 50% of the population examined for the study claimed to be aware of the dangers of plastic wastes, there is still indifference in the way these wastes are handled as can be observed by the indiscriminate dumping of these wastes, creating litters around the environment. These result revealed a need for the development of a proactive and sustainable management system involving individuals, businesses, hospital managements and waste management body that will protect the environment and enhance resource and energy recovery from plastic wastes.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Al-Salem, S.M.; Lettieri, P.; Baeyens, J., (2010). The valorization of plastic solid waste (PSW) by primary to quaternary routes: From re-use to energy and chemicals. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 36(1): 103-129(27 pages).

ACC, (2005). How plastics are made. American Chemistry Council.

Anke, B.; Raf, D.; Jan B.; Rui, Z., (2013). Gasification of plastic waste as waste-to-energy or waste-to-syngas recovery route. Nat. Sci., 5(6): 695-704(10 pages).

Bakare, W., (2016). Solid Waste Management in Nigeria. BioEnergy Consult.

Berkum, M.; Aras, E.; Nemlioglu, S., (2005). Disposal of solid waste in Istanbul and along the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Waste Manage., 25: 847-855(9 pages).

Gorman, B., (2017). Plastic Waste: Environmental Effects of Plastic Pollution. The Vegan Junction.

Capel, C., (2008). Waste sorting- A look at the separation and sorting techniques in today’s European market. Waste Management World.

CNY, (2014). PlaNYC Progress Report 2014.City of New York.

Cohen, S.; Martinez, H.; Schroder, A., (2015). Waste management practices in New York City, Hong Kong and Beijing, ALEP Waste Management Final.

DSCNY, (2006).Final Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan.Department of Sanitation, City of New York.

Elias, H.G., (2000). Plastics, general survey, Ullman’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry.Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.

EPD, (2012). Waste Reduction and Recovery Factsheet No.1: recovery and recycling of municipal solid waste in Hong Kong. Environmental Protection Department.

Gregory, M.R., (2009). Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings—entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 364: 2013–2025(13 pages).

Gwada, B.; Ogendi, G.; Makindi, S.M.; Trott, S., (2019). Composition of plastic waste discarded by households and its management approaches. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 5(1): 83-94(12 pages).

Jambeck, J.R.; Geyer, R.; Wilcox, C.; Siegler, T. R.; Perryman, M.; Andrady, A.; Narayan, R.; Law, K. L. (2015). Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean, Science, 347(6223): 768–771 (4 pages).

Lopez, G.; Artetxe, M.; Amutio, M.; Alvarez, J.; Bilbao, J.; Olazar, M., (2018). Recent advances in the gasification of waste plastics-A critical overview. Renew Sustain Energy, 82:576–96(21 pages).

Malkow, T., (2004). Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal. Waste Manage., 24(1):53–79(27 pages).

Meeker, J.D.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Swan, S.H., (2009). Phthalates and other additives in plastics: human exposure and associated health outcomes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 364: 2097–2113(17 pages).

MLS, (2018). The Declaration of the Global Plastics Association for solutions on Marine Litters. 4th Progress Report. Marine Litter Solutions.

Moore, C.J., (2008). Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long term threat. Environ. Res., 108:131–9(9 pages).

Olusunmade, O.F.; Bulus, A. E.; Kashin, T. K., (2018). Effect of Imperata Cylindrica (IC) reinforcement form on the tensile and impact properties of its composites with recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE). ACTA Polytechnica, 58(5):292-296(5 pages).

Olusunmade, O.F.; Zechariah, S.; Yusuf, T.A., (2018). Characterization of Recycled Linear Density Polyethylene/Imperata Cylindrica Particulate Composites. ACTA Polytechnica, 58(3):195-200(6 pages).

Plasticisrubbish, (2013). Naphtha and Oil derived plastics.              

PlasticsEurope, (2013). Zero Plastics to landfill: Waste collection, pre-treatment and sorting.

PlasticsEurope, (2018). How plastics are made.

Kunwar, B; Cheng, H.N.; Sriram, R. C.; Brajendra K. S., (2016). Plastics to fuel: a review. Renewableand Sustainable EnergyRev., 54: 421–428(8 pages).

Thompson, R.C.; Moore,C.J.; VomSaal, F.S.; Shanna, H.S., (2009). Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends. Philos. Trans R Soc. B Biol. Sci., 364(1526): 2153–2166(14 pages).

UNEP, (2018). UN Declares War on Ocean Plastic.United Nations Environment Program.

Koushal,V.;Sharma,R.; Sharma,M.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V., (2014). Plastics: Issues challenges and remediation. Int. J. Waste Resour., 4:134(6 pages).

Wong, S.L.; Ngadi, N.; Abdullah, T.A.T.; Inuwa I.M., (2015). Current state and future prospects of plastic waste as source of fuel: a review. Renew Sustain Energy, 50:1167–80(14 pages).

Zhou, C.; Fang, W.; Xu. W.; Cao, A.; Wang, R., (2014). Characteristics and the recovery potential of plastic wastes obtained from landfill mining. Cleaner Product., 80: 80-86(7 Pages).

Al-Salem, S.M.; Lettieri, P.; Baeyens, J., (2010). The valorization of plastic solid waste (PSW) by primary to quaternary routes: From re-use to energy and chemicals. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 36(1): 103-129(27 pages).

ACC, (2005). How plastics are made. American Chemistry Council.

Anke, B.; Raf, D.; Jan B.; Rui, Z., (2013). Gasification of plastic waste as waste-to-energy or waste-to-syngas recovery route. Nat. Sci., 5(6): 695-704(10 pages).

Bakare, W., (2016). Solid Waste Management in Nigeria. BioEnergy Consult.

Berkum, M.; Aras, E.; Nemlioglu, S., (2005). Disposal of solid waste in Istanbul and along the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Waste Manage., 25: 847-855(9 pages).

Gorman, B., (2017). Plastic Waste: Environmental Effects of Plastic Pollution. The Vegan Junction.

Capel, C., (2008). Waste sorting- A look at the separation and sorting techniques in today’s European market. Waste Management World.

CNY, (2014). PlaNYC Progress Report 2014.City of New York.

Cohen, S.; Martinez, H.; Schroder, A., (2015). Waste management practices in New York City, Hong Kong and Beijing, ALEP Waste Management Final.

DSCNY, (2006).Final Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan.Department of Sanitation, City of New York.

Elias, H.G., (2000). Plastics, general survey, Ullman’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry.Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.

EPD, (2012). Waste Reduction and Recovery Factsheet No.1: recovery and recycling of municipal solid waste in Hong Kong. Environmental Protection Department.

Gregory, M.R., (2009). Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings—entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 364: 2013–2025(13 pages).

Gwada, B.; Ogendi, G.; Makindi, S.M.; Trott, S., (2019). Composition of plastic waste discarded by households and its management approaches. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 5(1): 83-94(12 pages).

Jambeck, J.R.; Geyer, R.; Wilcox, C.; Siegler, T. R.; Perryman, M.; Andrady, A.; Narayan, R.; Law, K. L. (2015). Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean, Science, 347(6223): 768–771 (4 pages).

Lopez, G.; Artetxe, M.; Amutio, M.; Alvarez, J.; Bilbao, J.; Olazar, M., (2018). Recent advances in the gasification of waste plastics-A critical overview. Renew Sustain Energy, 82:576–96(21 pages).

Malkow, T., (2004). Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal. Waste Manage., 24(1):53–79(27 pages).

Meeker, J.D.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Swan, S.H., (2009). Phthalates and other additives in plastics: human exposure and associated health outcomes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 364: 2097–2113(17 pages).

MLS, (2018). The Declaration of the Global Plastics Association for solutions on Marine Litters. 4th Progress Report. Marine Litter Solutions.

Moore, C.J., (2008). Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long term threat. Environ. Res., 108:131–9(9 pages).

Olusunmade, O.F.; Bulus, A. E.; Kashin, T. K., (2018). Effect of Imperata Cylindrica (IC) reinforcement form on the tensile and impact properties of its composites with recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE). ACTA Polytechnica, 58(5):292-296(5 pages).

Olusunmade, O.F.; Zechariah, S.; Yusuf, T.A., (2018). Characterization of Recycled Linear Density Polyethylene/Imperata Cylindrica Particulate Composites. ACTA Polytechnica, 58(3):195-200(6 pages).

Plasticisrubbish, (2013). Naphtha and Oil derived plastics.              

PlasticsEurope, (2013). Zero Plastics to landfill: Waste collection, pre-treatment and sorting.

PlasticsEurope, (2018). How plastics are made.

Kunwar, B; Cheng, H.N.; Sriram, R. C.; Brajendra K. S., (2016). Plastics to fuel: a review. Renewableand Sustainable EnergyRev., 54: 421–428(8 pages).

Thompson, R.C.; Moore,C.J.; VomSaal, F.S.; Shanna, H.S., (2009). Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends. Philos. Trans R Soc. B Biol. Sci., 364(1526): 2153–2166(14 pages).

UNEP, (2018). UN Declares War on Ocean Plastic.United Nations Environment Program.

Koushal,V.;Sharma,R.; Sharma,M.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V., (2014). Plastics: Issues challenges and remediation. Int. J. Waste Resour., 4:134(6 pages).

Wong, S.L.; Ngadi, N.; Abdullah, T.A.T.; Inuwa I.M., (2015). Current state and future prospects of plastic waste as source of fuel: a review. Renew Sustain Energy, 50:1167–80(14 pages).

Zhou, C.; Fang, W.; Xu. W.; Cao, A.; Wang, R., (2014). Characteristics and the recovery potential of plastic wastes obtained from landfill mining. Cleaner Product., 80: 80-86(7 Pages).

Al-Salem, S.M.; Lettieri, P.; Baeyens, J., (2010). The valorization of plastic solid waste (PSW) by primary to quaternary routes: From re-use to energy and chemicals. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 36(1): 103-129(27 pages).

ACC, (2005). How plastics are made. American Chemistry Council.

Anke, B.; Raf, D.; Jan B.; Rui, Z., (2013). Gasification of plastic waste as waste-to-energy or waste-to-syngas recovery route. Nat. Sci., 5(6): 695-704(10 pages).

Bakare, W., (2016). Solid Waste Management in Nigeria. BioEnergy Consult.

Berkum, M.; Aras, E.; Nemlioglu, S., (2005). Disposal of solid waste in Istanbul and along the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Waste Manage., 25: 847-855(9 pages).

Gorman, B., (2017). Plastic Waste: Environmental Effects of Plastic Pollution. The Vegan Junction.

Capel, C., (2008). Waste sorting- A look at the separation and sorting techniques in today’s European market. Waste Management World.

CNY, (2014). PlaNYC Progress Report 2014.City of New York.

Cohen, S.; Martinez, H.; Schroder, A., (2015). Waste management practices in New York City, Hong Kong and Beijing, ALEP Waste Management Final.

DSCNY, (2006).Final Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan.Department of Sanitation, City of New York.

Elias, H.G., (2000). Plastics, general survey, Ullman’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry.Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.

EPD, (2012). Waste Reduction and Recovery Factsheet No.1: recovery and recycling of municipal solid waste in Hong Kong. Environmental Protection Department.

Gregory, M.R., (2009). Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings—entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 364: 2013–2025(13 pages).

Gwada, B.; Ogendi, G.; Makindi, S.M.; Trott, S., (2019). Composition of plastic waste discarded by households and its management approaches. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 5(1): 83-94(12 pages).

Jambeck, J.R.; Geyer, R.; Wilcox, C.; Siegler, T. R.; Perryman, M.; Andrady, A.; Narayan, R.; Law, K. L. (2015). Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean, Science, 347(6223): 768–771 (4 pages).

Lopez, G.; Artetxe, M.; Amutio, M.; Alvarez, J.; Bilbao, J.; Olazar, M., (2018). Recent advances in the gasification of waste plastics-A critical overview. Renew Sustain Energy, 82:576–96(21 pages).

Malkow, T., (2004). Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal. Waste Manage., 24(1):53–79(27 pages).

Meeker, J.D.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Swan, S.H., (2009). Phthalates and other additives in plastics: human exposure and associated health outcomes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 364: 2097–2113(17 pages).

MLS, (2018). The Declaration of the Global Plastics Association for solutions on Marine Litters. 4th Progress Report. Marine Litter Solutions.

Moore, C.J., (2008). Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long term threat. Environ. Res., 108:131–9(9 pages).

Olusunmade, O.F.; Bulus, A. E.; Kashin, T. K., (2018). Effect of Imperata Cylindrica (IC) reinforcement form on the tensile and impact properties of its composites with recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE). ACTA Polytechnica, 58(5):292-296(5 pages).

Olusunmade, O.F.; Zechariah, S.; Yusuf, T.A., (2018). Characterization of Recycled Linear Density Polyethylene/Imperata Cylindrica Particulate Composites. ACTA Polytechnica, 58(3):195-200(6 pages).

Plasticisrubbish, (2013). Naphtha and Oil derived plastics.              

PlasticsEurope, (2013). Zero Plastics to landfill: Waste collection, pre-treatment and sorting.

PlasticsEurope, (2018). How plastics are made.

Kunwar, B; Cheng, H.N.; Sriram, R. C.; Brajendra K. S., (2016). Plastics to fuel: a review. Renewableand Sustainable EnergyRev., 54: 421–428(8 pages).

Thompson, R.C.; Moore,C.J.; VomSaal, F.S.; Shanna, H.S., (2009). Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends. Philos. Trans R Soc. B Biol. Sci., 364(1526): 2153–2166(14 pages).

UNEP, (2018). UN Declares War on Ocean Plastic.United Nations Environment Program.

Koushal,V.;Sharma,R.; Sharma,M.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V., (2014). Plastics: Issues challenges and remediation. Int. J. Waste Resour., 4:134(6 pages).

Wong, S.L.; Ngadi, N.; Abdullah, T.A.T.; Inuwa I.M., (2015). Current state and future prospects of plastic waste as source of fuel: a review. Renew Sustain Energy, 50:1167–80(14 pages).

Zhou, C.; Fang, W.; Xu. W.; Cao, A.; Wang, R., (2014). Characteristics and the recovery potential of plastic wastes obtained from landfill mining. Cleaner Product., 80: 80-86(7 Pages). 


HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE:

Olusunmade, O.F., (2019). Plastic wastes separation practice and disposal mechanism by households, hospitals, markets and waste management body. Int. J. Hum. Capital Urban Manage., 4(3): …, …