1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering and Architecture, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman

2 Department of Chemical and Petrochemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Architecture, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman


 In this study the quality of Omani and United Arab Emirates bottled water brands which are sold in Oman were assessed by comparing the chemical composition indicated on manufacturer’s label with local and international bottled water standards. Results indicated that all the bottled water brands are complying with local and international standards. According to piper diagram, the most dominant water type among Omani brands is mixed Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- and among United Arab Emirate brands is calcium chloride. Hierarchical cluster analysis divided Omani and United Arab Emirate brands in to four groups based on similarity in chemical composition. Some of the Omani and United Arab Emirate brands have same chemical composition, but marketed under different names. Calcium concentration in Omani and United Arab Emirate brands is low compared to imported mineral water brands, and their contribution towards recommended dietary allowances of calcium for adults is only 3%. Both Omani and United Arab Emirate brands used in this study are meeting United States Food and Drug Administration’s very low sodium category requirements and are suitable for individuals on severely restricted sodium diet.


Main Subjects

Abtahi, M.; Yaghmaeian, K.; Mohebbi, M.; Koulivand, A.; Rafiee, M.; Jahangiri-rad, M., (2016). An innovative drinking water nutritional quality index (DWNQI) for assessing drinking water contribution to intakes of dietary elements: A national and sub-national study in Iran. Ecol. Indic., 60: 367-376 (10 pages).

Ahmed, T.; Rashid, K.N.; Hossain, Md., (2016). Nutrient minerals in commercially available bottled waters of Bangladesh: dietary implications. Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res., 51(2): 111-120 (10 pages).

Al Aamri, Z.; Ali, B., (2017). Chemical composition of different brands of bottled drinking water Sold in Oman as labeled by manufacturers. Asian J. Water Environ. Pollut., 14(4): 1-7 (7 pages).

Arvin, E.; Bardow, A.; Spliid, H., (2017). Caries affected by calcium and fluoride in drinking water and family income. J. Water Health., 16(1): 49-56 (8 Pages).

Atkinson, S., (2018). Containerised SWRO systems address increasing potable water demands in Oman. Membr. Technol., 2018(11): p.7.Baker, M.; Longyhore, D., (2006). Dietary calcium, calcium supplements, and the risk of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm., 63(8): 772-775 (4 Pages).

Cocchetto, D.M.; Levy, G., (1981). Absorption of orally administered sodium sulfate in humans. J. Pharm. Sci., 70: 331–333  (3 pages).

Dietary Reference Intakes., (2009). Nutr. Rev., 55(9): 319-326 (8 Pages).

Ferreira-Pêgo,C.; Babio,N.; Maraver Eyzaguirre, F.; Vitoria Miñana, I.; Salas-Salvadó., J, (2016). Water mineralization and its importance for health.  Alimentacion, Nutricion y. Salud, 23(1): 4-18 (14 pages).

Freire, F.; Thore, S.; Ferrao, P., (2001). Life cycle activity analysis: logistics and environmental policies for bottled water in Portugal. OR. Spek., 23(1):159-182 (24 Pages).

Garzon, P,;  Eisenberg, M., (1998). Variation in the mineral content of commercially available bottled waters: implications for health and disease. T. American J. Med., 105(2):125-130 (6 Pages).

GSO., (2008). Bottled drinking water (Draft standard): GSO/FDS/1025/2008

Hazzab, A., (2011). Retrospective of natural mineral waters and spring waters in Algeria: Regulatory Framework and Technical Aspects. Desalin. Water Treat., 36(1-3): 13-26 (14 Pages).

Morris, M.; Levy, G., (1983). Absorption of Sulfate from Orally Administered Magnesium Sulfate in Man.  J. Toxicol Clin Toxicol., 20(2):107-114 (8 Pages).

Murakami, S.; Goto, Y.; Ito, K.; Hayasaka, S.; Kurihara, S.; Soga, T.; Tomita, M.; Fukuda, S., (2015). The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control. Evid Based Complementary Altern. Med., : 1-10 (10 Pages).

Murshid, S., (2003). Development Implications of Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh. Water Nepal, 10(1):303-311 (9 Pages).

Musso, C., (2009). Magnesium metabolism in health and disease. Int. Urol. Nephrol., 41(2):357-362 (6 Pages).

Murakami, S.; Goto, Y.; Ito, K.; Hayasaka, S.; Kurihara, S.; Soga, T.; Tomita, M.; Fukuda, S., (2015). The consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water improves glycemic control. Evid- Based Compl. Alt., 5(4): 1-10 (10 Pages).

Sreedharreddy,S.; Salam K.Al Dawery.,(2018). Classification and dietary nutrient contribution of locally produced bottled water brands in Oman.  Appl.  J. Envir. Eng. Sci.,4(1):23-32 (10 pages).

Tahir, M.; Rasheed, H., (2012). Fluoride in the drinking water of Pakistan and the possible risk of crippling fluorosis. Drinking Water Eng. Sci. Discuss., 5(1):495-514 (20 Pages).

Todd, D., (2004). Groundwater hydrology. 3rd. New Delhi, India: John Wiley and Sons.

Van der Aa, M., (2003). Classification of mineral water types and comparison with drinking water standards. Environ. Geol., 44(5): 554-563 (10 Pages).

WHO., (2011). Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 4th Ed., Geneva, World Health Organization.

Wright, N.; Looker, A.; Saag, K.; Curtis, J.; Delzell, E.; Randall, S.; Dawson-Hughes, B., (2014). The recent prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the femoral neck or lumbar spine. J. Bone Miner. Res., 29(11): 2520-2526 (7 Pages).

Zoeteman, B.C., (2015). Sensory assessment of water quality: Pergamon series on environmental science (Vol. 2). Elsevier.


International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management (IJHCUM) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in IJHCUM should be sent to the editorial office of IJHCUM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.