Document Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER

Authors

1 Department of Forestry and Range Management, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2 Center of Excellence in Geology, Peshawar, Pakistan

3 Department of Environmental Sciences, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

4 Sub-divisional Wildlife Officer, Mardan Wildlife Division, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Wildlife Department, Pakistan

Abstract

Water loss can be minimized and conserve through constructing small storage dams for various irrigation purposes to support local livelihood. Geographic information system provides powerful techniques for many hydrological modeling and suitable dam site selection. The current study explored potential sites for small storage dams to meet agricultural requirements in district Malakand, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. Multi criteria decision analysis was used for selection of suitable sites for storage dam for agricultural purpose. The methodology was completed in four main steps; acquisition of data, selection of factors and constraints, giving percentage influence to each criterion and performing weighted overlay. Digital elevation model was used for watershed analysis and Landsat 8 image for land use classification. All contributing factors such as slope, soil map, settlements, canals, roads, river, watershed and recreational sites were used in weighted overlay for suitable site selection. Results showed that Masooka rockland soil possessed the highest suitability for dam construction as the high clay proportion of the soil provides cementation. Slope zone of 0-3.16 degree slope was considered best and 3.16-7.90 degrees was highly suitable. Distance (5-10 km or more) form recreational sites and presence of 140-186 Stream links which makes the site more suitable. Regarding land use, the barren land or rangeland was more preferable. Finally, 15 sites were found suitable for small storage dams in the district. The main river lies close to the selected site assuring the perennial flow of water. The study suggests that geographic information system provides efficient tools for decision makers in hydrology and dam site selection.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Abushandi, E.; Alatawi, S., (2015). Dam site selection using remote sensing techniques and geographical information system to control flood events in Tabuk City. Hydro. Cur. Res., 6(1): 1–13 (13 pages).

Adinarayana, J.; Krishna, N.R; Rao, K.G., (1995). An Integrated approach for prioritization of watersheds.  J. Environ. Manage., 44(4): 375–384 (10 pages).

Al-Abadi, A.M.; Shahid, S.; Ghalib, H.B.; Handhal, A.M., (2017). A GIS-based integrated fuzzy logic and analytic hierarchy process model for assessing water-harvesting zones in northeastern Maysan governorate, Iraq. Arab. J. Sci. Eng., 42(6): 2487-2499 (13 pages).

Al-Adamat, R.; AlAyyash.; Al-Amoush, H.; Al-Meshan, O.; Rawajfih, Z.; Shdeifat, A.; Al-Harahsheh, A.; Al-Farajat, M., (2012). The combination of indigenous knowledge and geo-Informatics for water harvesting siting in the jordanian Bad. J. GIS., 4: 366-376 (11 pages).

Ashraf, M.; Kahlown, M.A.; Ashfaq, A., (2007). Impact of small dams on agriculture and groundwater development: A case study from Pakistan.  Agric. Water Manag., 92(1): 90-98 (9 pages).

Baban, S.M.J; Wan-Yusof, K., (2003). Modelling optimum sites for locating reservoirs in tropical environments. Water Resour. Manage., 17(1): 1–17 (17 pages).

Behera, D.K., (2013). Dams, development and the exclusion of indigenous groups: a case from Odisha1, navigating social exclusion and inclusion in contemporary India and beyond: structures, agents, practices, 167.

Bhattacharya, S.R., (2016). Planning of land and water resources for a small watershed of Mungeli district. Doctoral dissertation, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur.

Bódis, K.; Monforti, F.; Szabó, S., (2014). Could Europe have more mini hydro sites? A suitability analysis based on continentally harmonized geographical and hydrological data. Renew. Sustainable Energy Rev., 37: 794-808 (16 pages).

Brauman, K.A.; Daily, G.C.; Duarte, T.K.E.; Mooney, H.A., (2007). The nature and value of ecosystem services: an overview highlighting hydrologic services. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., 32: 67-98 (32 pages).

Briscoe, J.; Qamar, U.; Contijoch, M.; Amir, P.; Blackmore, D., (2006). Pakistan's water economy: running dry. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Brouwer, C.; Prins. K.; Kay. M.; Heibloem, M., (1990). Irrigation water management: irrigation methods, training manual. 5(140).

Butt, A.; Shabbir, R.; Ahmad, S. S.; Aziz, N., (2015). Land use change mapping and analysis using remote sensing and GIS: a case study of simly watershed, Islamabad, Pakistan. The Egypt. J. Remote Sens. Space Sci., 18(2): 251-259 (09 pages).

Chhuon, K.; Herrera, E.; Nadaoka, K., (2016). Application of integrated hydrologic and river basin management modeling for the optimal development of a multi-purpose reservoir project. Water Resour Manag., 30(9): 3143-3157 (15 pages).

Dixon, B.; Uddameri, V.; Ray, C., (2015). GIS and geocomputation for water resource science and engineering. John Wiley & Sons.

Elameen, I.H.E., (2017). Minimization of flash floods water using GIS based water harvesting. Doctoral dissertation, Sudan University of Science Technology.

Hansjürgens, B.; Droste, N.; Tockner, K., (2016). Neglected values of major water engineering projects: ecosystem services, social impacts, and economic valuation. In Society-Water-Technology Springer International Publishing, 65-78 (14 pages).

Hlásny, T.; Kočický, D.; Maretta, M.; Sitková, Z.; Barka, I.; Konôpka, M.;  Hlavatá, H., (2015). Effect of deforestation on watershed water balance: Hydrological modelling-based approach/Vplyv odlesnenia na vodnú bilanciu povodia: Prístup na báze hydrologického modelovania. For. J., 61(2): 89-100 (13 pages).  

Go KPK, (2017).Development statistics of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, bureau of statistics planning & development department, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.  

Jan, A.M., (2012). The emergence and transformation of Batkhela (Malakand) bazaar: ethnic entrepreneurship, social networks, and change in disadvantageous societies.

Jamali, I.A.; Mörtberg, U.; Olofsson, B.; Shafique, M., (2014). A spatial multi-criteria analysis approach for locating suitable sites for construction of subsurface dams in Northern Pakistan. Water Resour. Manage., 28(14): 5157-5174 (18 pages).

Johnson, L.E., (2016). Geographic information systems in water resources engineering. CRC Press.

Kijne, J.W., (2001). Lessons learned from the change from supply to demand water management in irrigated agriculture: a case study from Pakistan. Water Policy. 3(2): 109-123 (15 pages).

Khitam, E.; Al-Maitah, J., (2005). Location of the dams using GIS techniques: a case study of the Hrh-Tasneem Bint Ghazi for technology research station.

Lalika, M.C.; Meire, P.; Ngaga, Y.M., (2015). Exploring watershed conservation and water governance along Pangani River Basin, Tanzania. Land Use Policy., 48: 351-361 (11 pages).

Lehmann, A.; Giuliani, G.; Ray, N.; Rahman, K.; Abbaspour, K.C.; Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Cripe, D.; Quevauviller, P.; Beniston, M., (2014). Reviewing innovative Earth observation solutions for filling science-policy gaps in hydrology. J. Hydrol., 518: 267-277 (11 pages).

Morrison, A. C.; Gold, A. J.; Pelletier, M. C., (2016). Evaluating key watershed components of low flow regimes in New England streams. J. Environ. Qual., 45(3): 1021-1028 (8 pages).

Negash, M.; Hassan, S.; Muchie, M.; Girma, A., (2015). Perspectives on the declaration of principles regarding the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam. The Thinker., 65: 56-61 (6 pages).

O’Callaghan, J.F; Mark, D.M., (1984). The extraction of drainage networks from digital elevation data. computer vision, graphics, and image processing. 27(2): 247.

Petty, T. R.; Noman, N.; Ding, D.; Gongwer, J.B., (2016). Flood forecasting GIS water-flow visualization enhancement (WaVE): A Case Study. J. GIS., 8(06): 692.

Rasooli, A.; Kang, D., (2015). Assessment of potential dam sites in the Kabul River Basin using GIS. Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl., 6:  83-89 (7 pages).

Saraswat, C.; Kumar, P.; Mishra, B.K., (2016). Assessment of storm water runoff management practices and governance under climate change and urbanization: An analysis of Bangkok, Hanoi and Tokyo. Environ. Sci. Policy., 64: 101-117 (17 pages).

Singh, L.K.; Jha, M.K.; Chowdary, V.M., (2017). Multi-criteria analysis and GIS modeling for identifying prospective water harvesting and artificial recharge sites for sustainable water supply. J. Clean Production., 142: 1436-1456 (21 pages).

Singh, P.; Gupta, A.; Singh, M., (2014). Hydrological inferences from watershed analysis for water resource management using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Egypt. J. Remote Sens. Space Sci., 17(2): 111-121 (11 pages).

Stemn, E.; Kumi-Boateng, B.; Sibil, S., (2016). Multi-criteria-GIS based site selection for irrigational reservoir–A case study. Eur. Agrophysical J., 3(1): 1-17 (17 pages).

Terêncio, D. P. S.; Fernandes, L. S.; Cortes, R. M. V.; Pacheco, F. A. L., (2017). Improved framework model to allocate optimal rainwater harvesting sites in small watersheds for agro-forestry uses. J. Hydrol., 550: 318-330 (13 pages).

Wang, G.; Xia, J.; Chen, J., (2009). Quantification of effects of climate variations and human activities on runoff by a monthly water balance model: a case study of the Chaobai River basin in northern China. Water Resour. Res., 45(7).

Wani, S.P.; Sreedevi, T.K.; Reddy, T.V.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Prasad, C.S., (2008). Community watersheds for improved livelihoods through consortium approach in drought prone rain-fed areas. J. Hydrol. Res. Develop., 23(1): 55-77 (23 pages).

Xie, H.; Chen, L.; Shen, Z., (2015). Assessment of agricultural best management practices using models: current issues and future perspectives. Water., 7(3): 1088-1108 (21 pages)

 

HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE

Raza, S.H.; Shafique, M.; Zia-ur-Rehman, M.; Sikandar, A.; Ahmad, N.; Shah, K., (2019). Site selection of water storage based on multi-criteria decision analysis. Int. J. Hum. Capital Urban Manage., 3(4): 279-286.