Document Type : CASE STUDY


1 Department of Urban Planning & Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Urban Planning & Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Nowadays, the expansion of the cities is an inevitable necessity; increasing the dependence of the citizens on motor vehicles and, consequently, making development of the transportation networks a necessity rather than an option. Thus, increasing car ownership and car use has created many problems for the cities, such as increasing greenhouse gas emissions, environmental pollution, casualties of accidents and reducing pedestrian safety. For instance, since 1970, CO2 emissions have increased by about 90%, with emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes contributing about 78% of the total greenhouse gas emissions increase from 1970 to 2011.Thus, in this study, complete street policy is proposed as a tool to solve these problems. This policy has many benefits including reducing transportation costs, increasing travel options, increasing safety, reducing air pollution and improving the quality of life for people. In this research, Jomhuri Street in Shiraz city has been analyzed according to complete street criteria by using SWOT and Space Syntax method. Finally, some strategies including using ramps for the disabled pedestrian, maintaining the continuity of the sidewalks, using techniques to decrease the width of the street and considering suitable furniture along the street are proposed to make Jomhuri Street a complete street. Therefore, in the process of formulating the appropriate strategies and policies for this Street, the attempt is to improve sustainable urban development through the creation of safe spaces to facilitate the movement of all users in the street.


Main Subjects

Bahrainy, Hossein.; Taghabon, S. (2015). Deficiency of the space syntax method as an urban design tool in designing traditional urban space and the need for some supplementary methods. Space Ontol., 4(15): 1-18 (18 pages).

Beatley, T. (1995). The many meanings of sustainability. J. Plan. Lit., 9(4): 339–342 (4pages).

Berger group, (1998). Guidance for estimating the indirect effects of proposed transportation projects. Report 403. Part 2. Transportation Research Board. 

Bevan, T.; Sklenar, O.; McKenzie, J.; Derry, W. (2007). Sustainable urban street design and assessment. 3rd Urban Street Symposium: Uptown, Downtown, or Small Town: Designing Urban Streets That Work. Seattle. WA.

Brown, B.B.; Smith, K.R.; Tharp, D.; Werner, C.M.; Tribby, C.P.; Miller, H.J.; Jensen, W. (2016). A complete street intervention for walking to transit, non transit walking, and bicycling: a quasi-experimental demonstration of increased use. J. Phys. Act. Health 13 (11): 1210–1219 (10 pages).

Carlson, S.; Paul, P.; Kumar, G.;Watson, K.; Atherton, E.; Fulton, J. (2017). Prevalence of complete streets policy in US municipalities. J. TH, 5: 142-150 (9 pages). 

Congress for the New Urbanism (CNU). (2012). Sustainable street network principles. published by congress for the new urbanism.

Gurel, E.; Tat, M. (2017). SWOT analysis: a theoretical review. J. Soc. Res. 10(51): 994-1006 (13 pages).

Hillier, B., Turner, A., Yang, T., Park, H., (2007). Metric and topo-geometric properties of urban street networks, proceedings of the 6th International Space Syntax Symposium Istanbul. pp. 1-22 (22 pages).

 Jensen, W.; Stump, T.; Brown, B.; Werner, C.; Smith, K., (2017). Walkability, Complete Streets, and Gender: Who Benefits Most?. J. Health Place. 48: 80-89 (10 pages).

Keippel, A.; Henderson, M.; Golbeck, A.; Gallup, T.; Duin, D.; Hayes, S.; Alexander, S., (2017). Healthy by Design: Using a Gender Focus to Influence Complete Street Policy. J. Women’s Health Issues. 27: 22-28 (7 Pages).

Khalifpour, H.; Soffianaian, A.; Fakheran, S., (2012). Application of SWOT analysis in strategic environmental planning: a case study of Isfahan. International Conference on Applied Life Sciences. Turkey.

Klarqvist, B., (1993). A space syntax glossary. Nordisk  rkitekturforskning . 22:11-12 (2 pages).

Litman, T., (1999). Reinventing transportation; exploring the paradigm shift needed to reconcile sustainability and transportation objectives. J. Transport Res. Rec. 1670. pp. 8–12 (5 pages). .

Litman, T., ( 2015). Evaluating Complete Streets: The Value of Designing Roads for Diverse Modes, Users and Activities. Victoria Transport Policy Publications.

Litman, T.; Burwell, D., (2006). Issues in sustainable transportation. Int. J. GEnvI. 6(2): 331-347 (16 pages).

Mitra, R.; Winters, A.; Smith Lea, N.; M.Hess, P., (2015). Complete streets evaluation. University of Toronto publications.

Mobaraki, O., (2014). Strategic Planning and Urban Development by Using the SWOT Analysis: The Case of Urmia City, J. RRRS., 2: 47-54 (8pages). 

Mosaberpanah, M.; Khales, S., (2013). The role of transportation in sustainable development. International Conference on Sustainable Design, Engineering, and Construction. Fort Worth. Texas.

National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO), ( 2013). Urban Street Design Guide. Island Press. London.

National Complete Streets Coalition (NCSC), (2017). The best complete streets policies of 2016. 

Pinelo, J.; Turner, A., (2010). Introduction to UCL depth map 10, UCL publications.

Schlossberg, M.; Rowell, J.; Amos, D.; Sanford, K., (2015). Rethinking streets: an evidence-based Guide to 25 Complete Street Transformations.

Shen, L.; Du, L.; Yang, X.; Wang, J.; Hao, J. (2018). Sustainable strategies for transportation development in emerging cities in china: a simulation approach, J. Sustainability, 10(844): 1-22 (22 pages).

Tario, J.; Kuzsman, C.; Booth, J., (2016). Measuring the Impact of Complete Streets Projects: Preliminary Field Testing. Prepared by university of Buffalo.

Thomson, RC., (2003). Bending the axial line: smoothly continuous road center-line segments as a basis for road network analysis. In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Space Syntax. University College London.

Turner, A.; Penn, A.; Hillier, B., (2005). An algorithmic definition of the axial map, J. Environ. Plan., 32: 425-444 (19 pages).

Turner, A., (2007). New Developments in Space Syntax Software. ITU Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul. .

Vandegrift, D.; Zanoni, N., (2018). An economic analysis of complete streets policies, J. Landsc. Urban Plan., 171: (88-97).

WSP (2017). State of New Jersey Complete Streets Design Guide.


International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management (IJHCUM) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in IJHCUM should be sent to the editorial office of IJHCUM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.