Document Type : REVIEW PAPER


1 Azman Hashim International Business School University Technology Malaysia Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2 YPC International College Jalan Jejaka, Taman Maluri, Cheras 55100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Research on managers' emotional intelligence and citizenship behavior in today's workplace outlined the importance of the manager and employees' challenges, contribution and how to solve it. The aim of this paper is to determine the managers’ proficiency using ability model (emotional intelligence) that benefits for manager to be responsive towards employees while expressing the information for career development and countries’ growth. Data and past findings were gathered from several industries by researchers to determine the central idea of the rationality of this paper. As evidence, an empirical result was provided to ensure managers might be beneficial into this significant finding that associated with managers' assessments toward subordinates. Thus, this review also highlighted managers' emotional intelligence that plays a key role towards stimulating good relationships between managers and employees. This gap is to illustrate how the ability model of emotional intelligence can acquire managers' EI skill set and citizenship behavior in order to influence directly the followers' contribution, benefit and challenges in the workplace. In this review, bringing a challenge and contribution among employees in the workplace contributed to the emotional intelligence and citizenship behavior in order to find out the intent of this review paper.


Main Subjects

Adabifirozjaee, S.; Abbaspour. A.: Azizishomami, M., (2014). The study of relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior of high school teachers in Iran. J. Appl. Sci. Agr., 9(6): 2457- 2465 (9 pages).

Akhtar, R.; Boustani, L.; Tsivrikos, D.; Chamorro-Premuzic, T., (2015). The engageable personality: Personality and trait EI as predictors of work engagement. Pers. Indiv. Differ., 73: 44-49 (6 pages).

Antony, J.M., (2013). The influence of emotional intelligence on organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Int. J. Soc. Sci. Interdiscip. Res., 2(3): 110-115 (6 pages).

Arrighetti, A.; Landini, F.; Lasagni, A., (2014). Intangible assets and firm heterogeneity: Evidence from Italy. Res. Policy., 43(1): 202-213 (12 pages).

Bolino, M.C.; Hsiung, H.H.; Harvey, J.; LePine, J.A., (2015). “Well, I’m tired of tryin’!” Organizational citizenship behavior and citizenship fatigue. J. Appl. Psychol., 100(1): 56–74 (19 pages).

Boyatzis, R. E.; Smith, M. L.; Van Oosten, E.; Woolford, L., (2013). Developing resonant leaders through emotional intelligence, vision and coaching. Org. Dynamic., 42(1): 17-24 (8 pages).

Boyatzis, R.E.; Good, D.; Massa, R., (2012). Emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence and personality as predictors of sales leadership performance. J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud., 19(2): 191-201 (11 pages).

Boyatzis, R.E.; Ratti, F., (2009). Emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies distinguishing effective Italian managers and leaders in a private company and cooperatives. J. Manage. Dev., 28(9): 821-838 (18 pages).

Branham, L., (2012). The 7 hidden reasons employees leave: How to recognize the subtle signs and act before it's too late. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, New York.

Camardella, M.J., (2003). Effective management of the performance‐appraisal process. Employ. Relat. Today, 30(1): 103-107 (5 pages).

Campbell Pickford, H.; Genevieve, J., (2016). Organizational citizenship behaviors: definitions and dimensions. Mutuality Bus, 1: 1-10 (10 pages). 

Caruso, D. R.; Salovey, P., (2004). The emotionally intelligent manager: How to develop and use the four key emotional skills of leadership, John Wiley & Sons.

Cavazotte, F.; Moreno.; V.; Hickmann, M., (2012). Effects of leader intelligence, personality and emotional intelligence on transformational leadership and managerial performance. Leadersh. Quart., 23(3): 443–455 (13 pages).

Chang, C. S.; Chang, H. C., (2010). Moderating effect of nurses’ customer –oriented perception between organizational citizenship behaviors and satisfaction. West. J. Nurs. Res., 32(5): 628–643 (16 pages). 

Chooi Hwa, M.A.; Amin, H., (2016). Why emotion at work matters: examining the influence of emotional labour and emotional intelligence on workplace behaviors among service workers in East Malaysia. J. Malays. Stud., 34(1): 79–105 (27 pages).

Chuang, A.; Judge, T. A.; Liaw, Y. J., (2012). Transformational leadership and customer service: A moderated mediation model of negative affectivity and emotion regulation. Eur. J. Wor. Org. Psychol., 21(1): 28–56 (29 pages). .

Dervitsiotis, K. N., (2001). Looking at the whole picture in performance improvement programmes. Total. Qual. Manage., 12(6): 687-700 (14 pages).

Emmerling, R.; Boyatzis, R. E., (2012). Emotional and social intelligence competencies: cross cultural implications. Cross. Cult. Manage. Int. J., 19(1): 4-18 (15 pages).

Erigüç, G.; Durkan Kose, S., (2013). Evaluation of emotional intelligence and communication skills of health care manager candidates: a structural equation modeling. Int. J. Bus. Soc. Sci., 4(13): 115-123 (9 pages).

Fiedler, F.E.; Bass, A.R.; Fiedler, J.M., (1961). The leader's perception of co-workers, group climate, and group creativity: a cross-validation. Tech. Rep. No. TRI.  Illinois University at Urbana Group Effectiveness Research Laboratory.

Fox, J.; Zauderer, D., (1987). Emotional maturity – an important executive quality, Manage. Solutions, 32(9): 40-45 (6 pages).

Fuimano, J., (2004). Raise your emotional intelligence. Nurs. Manage., 35 (7): 10-12 (3 pages).

Fuller, J. B., (2017). Organizational Behavior. Pearson Education (6th edn.), Retrieved from:

Garcia, A.; Ocampo, R., (2016). Emotional intelligence and conscientiousness as predictors of organizational citizenship behavior. Bedan. J. Psychol., 1: 62-70 (9 pages).

George, J. M., (2000). Emotions and leadership: the role of emotional intelligence. Hum. Relat., 55(8): 1027-1044 (18 pages).

Goleman, D., (1998). Working with emotional intelligence: Bantam Books (464 pages).

Gooty, J.; Connelly, S.; Griffith, J.; Gupta, A., (2010). Leadership, affect and emotions: A state of the science review. Leadersh. Quart., 21: 979–1004 (26 pages).

Guerci, J., (2009). Organizational Behavior-Level of Analysis, Levels of Organizational Behavior.

Hanzaee, K.; Mirvaisi, M., (2013). A survey on impact of emotional intelligence, organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction on employees’ performance in Iranian hotel industry. Manage. Sci. Letters., 3: 1395–1402 (8 pages). .

Harms, P. D.; Crede, M., (2010). Emotional intelligence and transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analysis. J. Leadersh. Org. Stud., 17(1): 5–17 (13 pages).

Hedges, K., (2015). Four ways to challenge employees to reach their potential. Work in progress community. Retrieved from: (Accessed 19 February 2015)

Hendon, M.; Powell, L.; Wimmer, H., (2017). Emotional intelligence and communication levels in information technology professionals. Comput. Hum. Behav., 71: 165-171 (7 pages).

Howard, A., (2006). Positive and negative emotional attractors and intentional change. J. Manag. Dev., 25(7):732-42. 

Huang, C.C.; You; C.S.; Tsai, M.T., (2012). A multidimensional analysis of ethical climate, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Nurs. Ethics., 19(4): 513-529 (17 pages).

Huang, J.; Wang, L.; Xie, J., (2014). Leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behavior: the roles of identification with leader and leader's reputation. Soc. Behav. Personal. Intern. J., 42(10): 1699-1711 (13 pages).

Hudson, (2014). Hudson leadership blueprint white paper: The right leaders for your organisation, today and tomorrow. Retrieved from:

Humphrey, R. H., (2002). The many faces of emotional leadership. Leadership Quart., 13: 493–504 (16 pages).

Humphrey, R. H., (2012). How do leaders use emotional labor? J. Organ. Behav., 33: 740–744 (12 pages).

Hur, Y. H.; Van den Berg, P. T.; Wilderom, C. P. M., (2011). Transformational leadership as a mediator between emotional intelligence and team outcomes. Leadersh. Quart., 22: 591–603 (13 pages).

Hurrell, S. A.; Scholarios, D.; Thompson, P., (2013). More than a humpty dumpty term: strengthening the conceptualization of soft skills. Econ. Ind. Democracy. 34(1): 161-182 (22 pages).

Kaplan, S.; Cortina, J.; Ruark, G.; LaPort,K.; Nicolaides, V., (2014).  The role of organizational leaders in employee emotion management: A theoretical model. Leadership Quart., 25(3): 563-580 (18 pages).         

Keshav, S.; Parul, M., (2017). Relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviour among bank employees. Pacif. Bus. Rev. Intern., 9(11): 20-29 (10 pages).

Ketter, P., (2008). What’s the big deal about employee engagement? American. Soc. Train.  Dev,; 62(1): 44-49 (6 pages).

Kluemper, D. H.; DeGroot, T.; Choi, S., (2013). Emotion management ability: predicting task performance, citizenship, and deviance. J. Manage., 39(4): 878–905 (28 pages).

Kolade, O.O.; Oluseye, O.O.; Osibanjo, O.A., (2014). Organizational citizenship behavior, hospital corporate image and performance. J. Competitiveness, 6(1): 36-49 (14 page).

Lam, C. S.; O’Higgins, E. R. E., (2012). Enhancing employee outcomes: The interrelated influences of managers’ emotional intelligence and leadership style. Leadership. Org. Dev. J., 33(2): 149–174 (26 pages).

Lawrence, J., (2007). Building an employee satisfaction survey. Pers. Today, 24(3): 26-27 (2 pages).

Lew, Y.K.; Sinkovics, R.R.; Kuivalainen, O., (2013). Upstream internationalization process: roles of social capital in creating exploratory capability and market performance. Int. Bus. Rev,, 22(6): 1101–1120 (20 pages).

Lim, B.T.H.; Loosemore, M., (2017). The effect of inter-organizational justice perceptions on organizational citizenship behaviors in construction projects. Int. J. Project Manage., 35: 95–106 (12 pages).

Lounsbury, J. W.; Sundstrom, E.; Levy, J. J.; Gibson, L. W., (2014). Distinctive personality traits of information technology professionals. Comp. Info. Sci., 7(3): 38 (1page).

Lu, X., (2014). Ethical leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: the mediating roles of cognitive and affective trust. Soc. Behav. Personal. Int. J., 42(3): 379-389 (10 pages).

Luo, H.; Liu, S., (2014). Effect of situational leadership and employee readiness match on organizational citizenship behavior in China. Soc. Behav. Persnal. Int. J., 42: 1725-1732 (8 pages).

Mahembe, B.; Engelbrecht, A.S., (2014). The relationship between servant leadership, organizational citizenship behavior and team effectiveness. SA. J. Indus. Psychol., 40(1): 0- 10 (11 pages).

Marshall, G.W.; Moncrief, W.C.; Lassk, F.G.; Shepherd, C.D. (2012). Linking performance outcomes to salesperson organizational citizenship behavior in an industrial sales setting. J. Pers. Selling Sales Manage., 32(4): 491-501 (11 page).

Marzuki, N. A.; Mustaffa, C. S.; Saad, Z. M., (2015). Emotional intelligence: its relations to communication and information technology skills. Asi. Soc. Sci., 11(15): 267-274 (8 pages). 

Matthews, G.; Zeidner, M.; Roberts, R. D., (2012). Emotional intelligence: a promise unfulfilled? Jap. Psychol. Res., 54(2): 105-127 (23 pages).

Mayer, J. D.; Caruso, D. R.; Salovey, P. (2000). Selecting a measure of emotional intelligence: The case for ability scales. In R. Bar-On; J. D. A. Parker, (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 320-342 (24 pages). 

Mayer, J. D.; Salovey, P.; Caruso, D. R., (2008). Emotional intelligence: new ability or eclectic traits? AM. Psychol., 63(6): 503-517 (15 pages).

Mayer, J.D.; Salovey, P., (1997). What is emotional intelligence?, In Salovey, P and Sluyter, D. (eds.) Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational Implications. 3-31 (29 pages).

Meers, K. A., (2007). Contextual barriers to strategic implementation: an examination of frontline perspectives. J. Am. Acad. Bus., 11(2): 11-16 (6 pages). .

Miao, C.; Humphrey,R.H.; Qian, S., (2017). Are the emotionally intelligent good citizens or counterproductive? A meta-analysis of emotional intelligence and its relationships with organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Pers. Indiv. Diff., 116: 144-156 (11 pages). 

Moquin, R.; Riemenschneider, C. K., (2014). IT professionals and their psychological contract in the IT profession. Paper presented at the 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Waikoloa, HI, USA. 3970-3979 (10 pages).

Moradi Aval, S; Haddadi, E; Keikha, A., (2017). Investigating the effect of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) components on organizational agility. Interdisipl. J. Edu., 1(2): 59- 67 (9 pages).

Murali Krishna, V.; Joice Swarnalatha, R., (2016). A study on emotional intelligence levels of the employees and its impact on their organizational commitment- with special reference to teaching faculties of Technical Education, Tirupati. Bonfring Int. J. Indust. Eng. Manage. Sci., 6(2): 31-37 (7 pages).

Nafukho, F. M., (2009). Emotional intelligence and performance: need for additional empirical evidence. Adv. Develop. Hum. Resour., 11(6): 671–689 (19 pages).

Naghdi, M,: Shatalebi, B., (2013). The predictability of the organizational citizenship behavior through emotional intelligence dimensions in personnel of Isfahan municipality. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian. J. Bus. Manage. Rev., 2(5): 36-44 (9 pages). 

Newman, A.; Ucbasaran, D.; Zhu, F.; Hirst, G., (2014). Psychological capital: a review and synthesis. J. Organ. Behav., 35: 120–138 (19 pages).

Okurame, D., (2012). Impact of career growth prospects and formal mentoring on organizational citizenship behavior. Leadersh. Organ. Dev. J., 33: 66–85 (20 pages).

Organ, D. W., (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, Lexington Books, MA. .

Pavalache-Ilie, M., (2014). Organizational citizenship behavior, work satisfaction, and employees’ personality. Procedia – Soc. Behav. Sci., 127: 489–493 (5 pages).

Pelit, E.; Ayana, C., (2016). The effect of emotional intelligence on organizational cynicism, research on hotel employees. J. Bus. Res. Turk., 8(2): 45-76 (32 pages).  (In Turkish)

Petrides, K. V.; Furnham, A., (2003). Trait emotional intelligence: Behavioural validation in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction. Eur. J. Pers., 17: 39–75 (37 pages). 

Podsakoff, N.P., Whiting, S.W., Podsakoff, P.M. and Blume, B.D., (2009) Individual-level and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors. A meta-analysis. J. Appl. Psychol., 94(1): 122–141 (20 page).

Podsakoff, P. M.; Mackenzie, S. B., (1997). Impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational performance: A review and suggestions for future research. Hum. Perform., 10: 133-151 (20 page).

Rahim, M. A., (2014). A structural equations model of leaders' social intelligence and creative performance. Creativ. Innov. Manage., 23(1): 44-56 (13 page).

Rajah, R.; Song, Z.; Arvey, R. D., (2011). Emotionality and leadership: Taking stock of the past decade of research. Leadership Quart., 22(6): 1107-1119 (13 pages).

Rajah, R.; Song, Z.; Arvey, R. D., (2011). Emotionality and leadership: taking stock of the past decade of research. Leadership. Quart., 22: 1107–1119 (13 pages).  

Rezaei, N.; Lorzangeneh, M.; Khedervisi, H., (2014). The relationship between emotional intelligence with organizational citizenship behavior (Case study: The Employees of Sepah Bank Branches of Kermanshah). J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 4(11):107-111 (5 pages).

Salovey, P.; Mayer, J. D., (1990). Emotional intelligence. Image. Cogn. Pers., 9(3): 185-211 (27 pages).

Sepehrikia, A.; Shirazi, M.; Sargazi, M., (2016). Relationship between Emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviors of employees among private banks in Zahedan. Elect. J. Biol., 12(4): 390-393 (4 pages).

Sharma, K.; Mahajan, P., (2017). Relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior among bank employees. Pacif. Bus. Rev. Int., 9(11): 20-29 (10 page).

Sharma, K.; Mahajan, P., (2017). Relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior among bank Employees. Pac. Bus. Rev. Int., 9(11): 20-29 (10 pages).

Shih, S.-P.; Lie, T.; Klein, G.; Jiang, J. J., (2014). Information technology customer aggression: the importance of an organizational climate of support. Inf. Manage., 51(6): 670-678 (9 pages). 

Şimşek, E.; Aktaş, H., (2013). The evaluation of communication skills and emotional intelligence in the context of work values. Paper presented at the International Conference on Communication, Media, Technology and Design, (ICCMTD) Famagusta – North Cyprus, 277-280 (5 pages).

Soltani, M.; Dolat-Abadi, H.R., (2015). Investigating the emotional intelligence and citizenship behavior on productivity with emphasis on spiritual intelligence (Iranian Oil Pipeline and Telecommunication Company). J. Agri. Sci. Eng., 1(2): 49-64 (16 pages).

Soo, H. S.; Ali, H., (2017). Can stressed employees perform organizational citizenship behavior? J. Adv. Manage. Sci., 5(2): 121-126 (6 pages).

Sosik, J. J.; Megerian, L. E., (1999). Understanding leader emotional intelligence and performance: The role of self-other agreement on transformational leadership perceptions. Group. Organ. Manage., 24(3): 367-390 (24 pages).

Story, J. S. P.; Youssef, C. M.; Luthans, F.; Barbuto, J. E.; Bovaird, J., (2013). Contagion effect of global leaders’ positive psychological capital on followers: Does distance and quality of relationship matter? Intern. J. Hum. Resour. Manage., 4: 2534–2553 (20 pages).

Syed Nadeem Abbas, H., (2014). The relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB): the moderating role of Islamic Work Ethics (IWE). ASEAN. J. Psychiatr., 16(1): 95-105 (11 pages). 

Timpe, A. D., (1986). Motivation of personnel: Art and Science of Business Management. Facts on File Publications, New York.

Vaida, S.; Opre, A., (2014). Emotional intelligence versus emotional competence. J. Psychol. Edu. Res., 22(1): 26-33 (8 pages).

Walter, F.; Bruch, H., (2009). An affective events model of charismatic leadership behavior: a review,    theoretical integration, and research agenda. J. Manage., 35: 1428–1452 (25 pages).

Walter, F.; Cole, M. S.; Humphrey, R. H., (2011). Emotional intelligence: Sine qua none of leadership or folderol? Acad. Manage. Persp., 25(1): 45–59 (15 pages).

Wee, Y.G.; Ahmad, K.Z.; Fen, Y.S., (2012). Promoting organizational citizenship behavior through high involvement human resource practices: an attempt to reduce turnover intention. GSTF J. Law. Soc. Sci. (JLSS), 1(1): 163-168 (6 pages).

Wilkerson, J. W., (2012). An alumni assessment of MIS related job skill importance and skill gaps. J. Inf. Syst. Edu., 23(1): 85-97 (10 pages).

Witt, D., (2011). The Challenge of Working in Teams-Dealing with Conflict. In Collaboration, Communication, Personality, Teambuilding, Teamwork, Work Teams. Ken Blanchard Webinar and Online Chat–Healing the Wounded Organization. Retrieved from:

Wong, C.S.; Law, K.S., (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. Leadersh. Quart., 13(3): 243-274 (32 pages).

Yulianti, P., (2014). Building organizational citizenship behavior with creative organizational climate support: A conceptual framework in Higher Education. Int. Res. J., 5(3): 98-106 (9 pages). 

Zehir, C.; Müceldili, B.; Altindağ, E.; Şehitoğlu, Y.; Zehir, S., (2014). Charismatic leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: the mediating role of ethical climate. Soc. Behav.  Pers.  Intern. J., 42(8): 1365-1375 (11 pages).

Zeidner, M.; Matthews, G.; Roberts, R. D., (2004). Emotional intelligence in the workplace: A critical review. Appl. Psychol., 53(3): 371-399 (29 pages).


International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management (IJHCUM) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in IJHCUM should be sent to the editorial office of IJHCUM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.