Document Type : CASE STUDY


Department of Environmental Sciences, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Increasing water demand and reducing its contaminations are the main concerns and challenges for water resource managers and planner due to its limited sources and high value. This study aims to assess and understand the factors which threaten the quality of groundwater resources and to achieve this, samples were taken from 14 active wells in District 3 of the Municipality of Tehran. After categorizing the parameters to distinct measurable groups containing anions (SO4, Cl, NO2, NO3, HCO3, CO3), cations (Mg, Na, k) heavy metals (Ag, Pb, Cd) physical parameters (temperature, color and odor) chemical parameters (Total Dissolved Solid , Electrical conductivity, Total Suspended Solids and pH, the data  were analyzed  using SPSS (version 16) software. The results revealed that excessive amount of nitrate anion in Paidari and Naji station is related to the slope and sandy texture of the wells and also the surrounding area’s soil. Increased cation concentration was visible in Resalat well, which indicated the use of excessive amount of fertilizers containing sodium and also the clay soil texture. Cadmium was the only heavy metal with the concentrations of more than the standard amount. Domestic sewage and surface runoff and also regional geological structure, the lack of appropriate distance between water wells with sewage wells were among other reasons, causing underground water pollution.


Main Subjects

Allouche, N.; Maanan, M.; Gontara, M.; Rollo, N.; Jmal, I.; Bouri, S., (2017). A global risk approach to assessing groundwater vulnerability. Environ. Modell. Software, 88: 168-182 (15 pages).

Ayers, R.S.; Westcot, D.W., (1985). Water quality for agriculture, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Booth, C. A.; Lamble, P., (2012). Improving Water Quality – Stories of progress and success from across Australia. Departement of sustainability environment water population and communities Australian government

Cerar, S.; Mali, N., (2016). Assessment of presence, origin and seasonal variations of persistent organic pollutants in groundwater by means of passive sampling and multivariate statistical analysis. J. Geochem. Explor., 170: 78-93 (15 pages).

Comte, J.C.; Cassidy, R.; Obando, J.; Robins, N.; Ibrahim, K.; Melchioly, S.; Mjemah, I.; Shauri, H.; Bourhane, A.; Mohamed, I.; Noe, C., (2016). Challenges in groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers of East Africa: Investigations and lessons learnt in the Comoros Islands, Kenya and Tanzania. J. Hydrol.: Reg. Stud., 5: 179-199 (21 pages).

Cvitanic, I.; Sodja, E.; Tehovnik, M.D.; Ambrozic, Š.; Grbovic, J.; Jesenovec, B.; Kolenc, A., (2008). River water quality monitoring in Slovenia report 2006 Ljubljana: Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia. Ljubljana, Slovenia.

DEC, N., (2007). Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Groundwater Contamination. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation.

Egnabor, V.O (1997). Integrating Environmental Education into the Senior Secondary School Biology Curriculum, In Udoh, S.U.; Akpa, G.O., (eds), Environmental education for sustainable development, Jos Tab Educational Books, 217-228 (12 pages).

Food and agriculture organization of United Nations (FAO), (2011). AQUASTAT online. Database. Rome, FAO.

Foster, S; Hirata, R; Gomes, D; D’Elia, M; Paris, M., (2002). Groundwater quality protection. The World Bank. Washington, DC.

Ground Water Resource Mapping in Ohio, (2011). Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of soil and water resources, Columbus, Ohio, 92-110 (9 pages).

Hassanzadeh, R.; Abbasnejad, A.; Hamzeh, M.A., (2011). Assessment of groundwater pollution in Kerman urban areas. J. Environ. Stud., 36(56): 101-110 (10 pages).

Kannel, P.R.; Lee, S.; Kanel, S.R.; Khan, S.P.; Lee, Y.S., (2007). Spatial-temporal variation and comparative assessment of water qualities of urban river system: a case study of the river Bagmati (Nepal). Environ. Monit. Assess., 129(1-3): 433-459 (27 pages).

Karbasi, M.; Karbasi, E.; Saremi, A.; Ghorbanizade KHarazi, H., (2010). Evaluation of the concentration of heavy metals in drinking water sources of Elshter city in 2009, Yafte J., 12(1): 65-70 (6 pages). (In Persian)

Mahdavi, M., (2004). Applied Hydrology, Vol. 2. University of Tehran Publication, Iran. (In Persian)

 Malakootian, M.; Khashi, Z., (2017). Heavy metals contamination of drinking water supplies in southeastern villages of Rafsanjan plain: Survey of arsenic, cadmium, lead and copper. Journal of Health in the Field, 2(1).

Masoudi, M.; Barzegar, S., (2015). Assessment  and zoning of Qualitative and quantitative severely degraded of groundwater resources by using modified model (IMDPA) and Geographic Information System(GIS) in the FiruzAbad  plain  in Fars province. Journal of Irrigation and Water Engineering, 20: 86-95 (10 pages).

Milovanovic, M., (2007). Water quality assessment and determination of pollution sources along the Axios/Vardar River, Southeastern Europe. Desalin., 213(1-3): 159-173 (15 pages).

Mozafarizadeh, J.; Sajadi, Z., (2014). Survey of groundwater chemical pollution in the Borazjan plain. Iran South Med. J., 17 (5): 927-937 (11 pages).

Nassery, H.; Key Homayoon, Z.; Nakhaei, M., (2012). Effect of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors on Water Resources quality in Lenjanat plain, Esfahan, Iran. Sci. quart. J. Geosci., 22(85): 173-186 (14 pages). (In Persian)

Saeedi, M.; Karbasi, A.R.; Nabi Bid Hendi, Gh.; Mehrdadi, N., (2007). The effect of human activities on the accumulation of heavy metals in river water Tajan in pronince Mazandaran. J. Environ. Stud., 32(40):41-50 (10 pages). (In Persian)

Sheirani, Z.; Abaspour, M.; Javid, A.; Taghavi, L., (2013). Assessment of groundwater pollution sources (Case study: District 14 of Tehran Municipality), J. Hum. Environ., 11(1): 1-16 (16 pages). (In Persian)

Sherbinin, A.D.; Carr, D.; Cassels, S.; Jiang, L., (2007). Population and environment. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., 32: 345-373 (29 pages).

Statistical Center of Iran, (2011-2012). Population, Statistical Center of Iran, Iran. 95-148 (54 pages).

Wilcox, L.V., (1948). The quality of water for irrigation. US Dept. of Agric. Tech. Bull., 962:1–40 (40 pages).

World Health Organization (WHO), (2011). Guidelines for drinking-water quality. World health organization, Geneva.

Zektser, S.; Loáiciga, H.A.; Wolf, J.T., (2005). Environmental impacts of groundwater overdraft: selected case studies in the southwestern United States. Environ. Geol., 47(3): 396-404 (9 pages).


International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management (IJHCUM) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in IJHCUM should be sent to the editorial office of IJHCUM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.