Department of Urban Planning and Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


In the current period, followed by the industrial revolution, the damaging effects of the one-dimensional attitude towards the environment caused by human have had countless hazards. To cope with these risks, the respect and protection of environmental values has attracted today's urban human attention once again and the issues about the human right to a decent, safe and healthy environment which is called briefly" environmental rights ", have widely been discussed. In fact, this research is formed on the basis of the principle that the right to a healthy environment, must be respected in the design of public spaces and the legal aspects of this principle must be considered in dealing with these spaces, so one of the necessary contexts to the conversion of today’s public spaces to valuable urban places would be provided. Therefore, in this study the human right to a healthy, safe and decent environment and the related concepts has been reviewed and the role of the environment in the process of transforming urban spaces to urban places has been discussed. This study also emphasizes on the role of the noise pollution of the urban public spaces as one of the threatening factors of the right to the environment, in the inefficiency and disorder in the process of the conversion of these spaces to public places and while reviewing the laws to reduce such pollution in urban public spaces, it stresses the necessity of considering these rules in designing the urban public spaces. This study uses descriptive and analytic research methodology and investigation techniques of literature review by using library studies.


Main Subjects

Abbaspour, M., (1992). Environment Engineering. Islamic Azad University Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)

Afsharnaderi, K., (1999). From land use to place. Memarmagazine, 6: 2-5 (4 pages). (In Persian)

Amirarjomand, A., (1994). Environmental protection and international solidarity, J. Legal Res., 15: 323-436 (114 pages). (In Persian)

Bacon, E.N., (1974). Design of cities. Thames and Hudson, London.

Bahram Soltani, K., (2006). Textes on human environment of Iran. Environmental Science Institute. (In Persian)

Banan, G.A., (1972). The human enviroment and pollution prevention. National Association of Conservation of Natural Resources and Human Environment, P. 5.

Bentley, I., (2004). Urban transformations: Power, people and urban design. Routledge.

Botkin, D.B.; Keller, E.A.; Rosenthal, D.B., (2015 [2012]). Environmental science (earth as living planet), Trans. A.H. Vahabzadeh, Jahad daneshgahi Publication, Mashhad. (In Persian)

Carmona, M.; Heath, T.; Oc, T.; Tiesdell, S., (2003). Urban Spaces-Public Places: The Dimensions of Urban Design, Architectural Press, Oxford.

Eftekhar Jahromi, G., (2003). Right to the Environment with Emphasis on Access to Environmental Information. In: The First Iran Environmenta Rights Conference, Tehran. p. 41. (In Persian)

Fathi Varjargah, K. (2003). Women's environmental knowledge for sustainable development. Trans. A. Sanjary, M. farmahini farahani, F. Kazemi, Shahid Beheshti University Publications, Environmental Protection Agency, Tehran.

García, A., (2001). Environmental Urban Noise, WIT Press, Southampton, UK.

Geddes, P., (1950). Cities in evolution, Oxford University Press.

Ghavam, M.A., (1996). Criminal protection of the environment. Enviromental Protection Agency Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)

Hammer, M.S.; Swinburn, T.K.; Neitzel, R.L., (2014). Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response. Environ. Health Perspect. (Online), 122(2): 115-119 (5 pages).

Herbert, D.; Thomas, C., (2013). Cities in space: city as place. Routledge.

Jane, J., (1961). The death and life of great American cities. Modern Library Editions & Random House Inc. New York.

Joneidi, M.J., (1973). Mining industry, environment pollution. Iran Industrial Development and Renovation Organization, University of Tehran Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)

Katouzian, A.N., (1968). Introduction the science of law and the legal system in Iran. Corporation Publication,Tehran. (In Persian)

Katouzian, A.N., (1998). The Principles of the Public Law. Dadgostar Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)

Khalilian, S.K., (1983). International Islamic Law. Islami Culture Publications Office, Tehran. (In Persian)

Khosroshahi, G.; Daneshpazhuh, M., (2000). Philosophy of Qom Law. Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute. Qom. (In Persian)

Kiss, A.; Shelton, D., [2011(2007)]. Guide to international environmental law. Trans. M.H. Habibi, Tehran University Publications. (In Persian)

Lynch, K.; Hack, G., (1984). Site planning. MIT press.

Madani Pour, A., (2005). Design of urban space: an inquiry into a socio - spatial process. pardazesh and barnamerizi office, Tehran.

Madani, S.J.D., (1991). Generalities of law. Hamrah Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)

Mashhadi, A., (2007). Identify and study the legal aspects of noise pollution (from domestic rules to international efforts). Journal of Environmental Scientist, 5(1): 53-66 (14 pages). (In Persian)

McKinney, M.L.; Schoch, R.M., (2003). Environmental science: Systems and solutions. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Mesbah Yazdi, M.T., (2013). Law and Policy in the Quran. Writing  by Martyr M. Shahrabi, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute Publication, Qom, Iran. (In Persian)

Montgomery, J., (1998). Making a city: Urbanity, vitality and urban design. Journal of Urban Design, 3(1): 93-116 (24 pages).

Mumford, L., (1961). City in history, New York.

Parsa, A., (1998). The environmental and human rights: study of the right to a healthy and decent environment as human rights. Political and Economic Information, 13 (135-136). (In Persian)

Parsi, H., (2002). Understanding the Content of Urban Space. J. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba, (11): 41-49 (9 pages). (In Persian)

Passchier-Vermeer, W.; Passchier, W.F., (2000). Noise exposure and public health. Environmental health perspectives, 108(Suppl. 1):123-131 (9 pages).

Project for Public Spaces, (2016). Place-Making: What if we built our cities around places. Available at:

Rapoport, A., (1977). Human aspects of urban form. Vol. 3, Pergamon, Oxford.

Roberts, P., (2009). Shaping, making and managing places: creating and maintaining sustainable communities through the delivery of enhanced skills and knowledge. Town Planning Review, 80(4-5): 437-454 (18 pages).

Seminary and University cooperation office, (1985).  An Introduction to Islamic Law, Islamic Publications Office, Qom, Iran. (In Persian)

Simpson, M.; Bruce R., (1981). Noise in America: Extent of the Noise Problem. (Report 550/9-81-101). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Sørensen, M.; Andersen, Z.J.; Nordsborg, R.B.; Becker, T.; Tjønneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O., (2013). Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incident diabetes: a cohort study. Environmental Health Perspectives (Online), 121(2): 121-217 (7 pages).

Swist, T.; Kuswara, A., (2016). Place-making in higher education: co-creating engagement and knowledge practices in the networked age. Higher education research & development, 35(1):100-114 (15 pages).

Taghizadeh Ansari, M., (1995). Environmental rights in Iran. Samt Publications, Tehran, p. 74.  (In Persian)

The royal commission on environmental pollution, (2007). The urban environment. The stationery office, London. Available at: Royal Commission’s website ( ).

Yatan, L.J., (1977). Air Pollution. Trans. S. Agah, Translation and Publication Board, Tehran. (In Persian)

Yigitcanlar, T.; Dizdaroglu, D., (2015). Ecological approaches in planning for sustainable cities: A review of the literature. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 1(2): 159-188 (30 pages).     

Zarsky, L., (2002). Human rights and the environment. Earthscan Publications Ltd, London.




International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management (IJHCUM) welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in IJHCUM should be sent to the editorial office of IJHCUM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.

[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.